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Fedora 7 Tutorial


Fedora 7 Tutorial

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Index Fedora 7 Tutorial

Part I Installation and Configuration
Installing Fedora
Fedora Quick Start
Working with GNOME
Command Line Quickstart
Part II Desktop Fedora
On the Internet
Productivity Applications
Printing with Fedora
Part III System Administration
Managing Users
Automating Tasks
System-Monitoring Tools
Backing Up
Remote Access with SSH
Part IV Fedora As a Server
Apache Web Server Management
Administering Database Services
File and Print
Remote File Serving with FTP
Handling Electronic Mail
Setting Up a Proxy Server
Managing DNS
Part V Programming Linux
Using Perl
Working with Python
Writing PHP Scripts
C/C++ Programming Tools for Fedora
Part VI Fedora Housekeeping
Securing Your Machines
Performance Tuning
Command Line Masterclass
Writing and Executing a Shell Script
Advanced Software Management
Managing the File System
Kernel and Module Management
Part VII Appendices
A The History of Red Hat and Fedora
B Installation Resources
C Fedora and Linux Internet Resources
Table of Contents
Changes from Previous Editions
Who This Book Is For
What This Book Contains
Conventions Used in This Book
Part I Installation and Configuration
1 Installing Fedora
Before You Begin the Installation
Planning Partition Strategies
Choosing How to Install Fedora
Installing from CD or DVD
Installing Using a Network
Step-by-Step Installation
Starting the Install
Partitioning Your Hard Drive
Choosing, Configuring, and Installing the Boot Loader
Network Configuration
Setting the Time Zone
Creating a Root Password and User Accounts
Software Selection and Installation
Finishing the Install
Firstboot Configuration
Logging In and Shutting Down
2 Fedora Quick Start
The Fedora Desktop
Getting Around Fedora
The Menu Options
Window Selector
The Computer Icon
The Home Icon
Accessing the Command Line
Available Applications
Office Suite
Internet Workstation
Keeping Your Software Up To Date
Configuring Wireless Networks
3 Working with GNOME
The GNOME Desktop Environment
AIGLX—Eye Candy for the Masses
Basic X Concepts
Using X
Elements of the xorg.conf File
Configuring X
Starting X
Using a Display Manager
Starting X from the Console by Using startx
Using Fedora’s switchdesk Client
KDE—The Other Environment
4 Command Line Quickstart
Understanding the Command Line
Navigating Through the File System
Managing Files with the Shell
Working with Compressed Files
Use Essential Commands from the /bin and /sbin Directories
Use and Edit Files in the /etc Directory
Protect the Contents of User Directories—/home
Use the Contents of the /proc Directory to Interact
with the Kernel
Work with Shared Data in the /usr Directory
Temporary File Storage in the /tmp Directory
Access Variable Data Files in the /var Directory
Logging In to and Working with Linux
Text-based Console Login
Logging Out
Logging In and Out from a Remote Computer
Using Environment Variables
Using the Text Editors
Working with vi
Working with emacs
Working with Permissions
Assigning Permissions
Directory Permissions
Understanding Set User ID and Set Group ID Permissions
Working as Root
Creating Users
Deleting Users
Shutting Down the System
Rebooting the System
Reading Documentation
Using Man Pages
Part II Desktop Fedora
5 On the Internet
Browsing the Internet
Mozilla Firefox
Choosing an Email Client
Mozilla Thunderbird
Other Mail Clients
RSS Readers
Instant Messaging with Pidgin
Internet Relay Chat
Usenet Network Newsgroups
The Pan News Client Newsreader
Videoconferencing with Ekiga
6 Productivity Applications
What Is in OpenOffice.org?
Working with OpenOffice.org Writer
Working with OpenOffice.org Calc
Office Suites for Fedora
Working with Gnome Office
Working with KOffice
Productivity Applications Written for Microsoft Windows
7 Multimedia
Listening to Music
Streaming Audio
Graphics Manipulation
The GNU Image Manipulation Program
Using Scanners in Fedora
Working with Graphics Formats
Capturing Screen Images
Using Digital Cameras with Fedora
Handheld Digital Cameras
Using F-Spot
Burning CDs and DVDs in Fedora
Creating CDs and DVDs with Fedora’s Graphical Clients
Creating CDs from the Command Line
Creating DVDs from the Command Line
Sound and Music
Sound Cards
Adjusting Volume
Sound Formats
Viewing Video
TV and Video Hardware
Video Formats
Viewing Video in Linux
Personal Video Recorders
DVD and Video Players
8 Printing with Fedora
Overview of Fedora Printing
Configuring and Managing Print Services
GUI-Based Printer Configuration Quickstart
Managing Printing Services
Creating and Configuring Local Printers
Creating the Print Queue
Editing Printer Settings
9 Games
Linux Gaming
Installing Proprietary Video Drivers
Installing Popular Games in Fedora
Unreal Tournament 2004
Quake 4
Wolfenstein: Enemy Territory
Battle for Wesnoth
Playing Windows Games with Cedega
Part III System Administration
10 Managing Users
User Accounts
Adding New Users
User IDs and Group IDs
Managing Groups
Group Management Tools
Managing Users
User Management Tools
Monitoring User Activity on the System
Managing Permissions
Assigning Permissions
Directory Permissions
Understanding Set User ID and Set Group ID Permissions
Managing Passwords
The Password File
Shadow Passwords
Managing Password Security for Users
Changing Passwords in a Batch
Granting System Administrator Privileges to Regular Users
Temporarily Changing User Identity with the su Command
Granting Root Privileges on Occasion—The sudo Command
Disk Quotas
Implementing Quotas
Manually Configuring Quotas
11 Automating Tasks
Running Services at Bootup
Beginning the Boot Loading Process
Loading the Linux Kernel
System Services and Runlevels
Runlevel Definitions
Booting into the Default Runlevel
Booting to a Nondefault Runlevel with GRUB
Understanding init Scripts and the Final Stage of Initialization
Controlling Services at Boot with Administrative Tools
Running Services Through xinetd
Changing Runlevels
Troubleshooting Runlevel Problems
Starting and Stopping Services Manually
Scheduling Tasks
Using at and batch to Schedule Tasks for Later
Using cron to Run Jobs Repeatedly
Basic Shell Control
The Shell Command Line
Shell Pattern-Matching Support
Piping Data
Background Processing
12 System-Monitoring Tools
Console-Based Monitoring
Using the kill Command to Control Processes
Using Priority Scheduling and Control
Displaying Free and Used Memory with free
Disk Quotas
Graphical Process and System Management Tools
KDE Process- and System-Monitoring Tools
13 Backing Up
Choosing a Backup Strategy
Why Data Loss Occurs
Assessing Your Backup Needs and Resources
Evaluating Backup Strategies
Making the Choice
Choosing Backup Hardware and Media
Removable Storage Media
Network Storage
Tape Drive Backup
Using Backup Software
tar: The Most Basic Backup Tool
The GNOME File Roller
The KDE Archiving Tools (KDE ark and kdat)
Using the Amanda Backup Application
Alternative Backup Software
Copying Files
Copying Files Using tar
Compressing, Encrypting, and Sending tar Streams
Copying Files Using cp
Using mc to Copy Files
System Rescue
The Fedora Rescue Disc
Backing Up and Restoring the Master Boot Record
Manually Restoring the Partition Table
Booting the System from the Rescue Disc
Booting the System from a Generic Boot Floppy Disk
Using a GRUB Boot Floppy Disk
Using the Recovery Facility from the Installation Disc
14 Networking
Using Network Configuration Tools
Using Graphical Configuration Tools
Command-Line Network Interface Configuration
Network Configuration Files
Laying the Foundation: The localhost Interface
Checking for the Availability of the Loopback Interface
Configuring the Loopback Interface Manually
Networking with TCP/IP
Advanced Wireless Networking
Support for Wireless Networking in Fedora
TCP/IP Addressing
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
How DHCP Works
DHCP Software Installation
Using DHCP to Configure Network Hosts
Other Uses for DHCP
Using IP Masquerading in Fedora
Beyond the Network and Onto the Internet
Common Configuration Information
Configuring DSL Access
Understanding Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet
Configuring a PPPoE Connection Manually
Configuring Dial-Up Internet Access
Configuring a Dial-Up Connection Manually
Using the Fedora Internet Configuration Wizard
Troubleshooting Connection Problems
15 Remote Access with SSH
Setting Up a Telnet Server
Setting Up an SSH Server
The SSH Tools
Using scp to Copy Individual Files Between Machines
Using sftp to Copy Many Files Between Machines
Using ssh-keygen to Enable Key-Based Logins
Remote X
16 Xen
Why Virtualization Is a Smart Idea
Virtualization Versus Paravirtualization
How Xen Works
Installing Xen
Setting Up Guest Operating Systems
Runtime Configuration
Part IV Fedora As a Server
17 Apache Web Server Management
About the Apache Web Server
Installing the Apache Server
Installing Through Pirut
Installing from the RPM
Building the Source Yourself
Starting and Stopping Apache
Starting the Apache Server Manually
Using /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd
Controlling Apache with Fedora’s service Command
Controlling Apache with Fedora’s chkconfig Command
Graphic Interface Configuration of Apache
Configuring Virtual Host Properties
Configuring the Server
Configuring Apache for Peak Performance
Runtime Server Configuration Settings
Runtime Configuration Directives
Editing httpd.conf
Apache Multiprocessing Modules
Using .htaccess Configuration Files
File System Authentication and Access Control
Restricting Access with allow and deny
Final Words on Access Control
Apache Modules
mod_dir and mod_env
mod_info and mod_log_config
mod_mime and mod_mime_magic
Virtual Hosting
Address-Based Virtual Hosts
Name-Based Virtual Hosts
18 Administering Database Services
A Brief Review of Database Basics
How Relational Databases Work
Understanding SQL Basics
Choosing a Database: MySQL Versus PostgreSQL
Data Locking
ACID Compliance in Transaction Processing to Protect
Data Integrity
SQL Subqueries
Procedural Languages and Triggers
Configuring MySQL
Setting a Password for the MySQL Root User
Creating a Database in MySQL
Granting and Revoking Privileges in MySQL
Configuring PostgreSQL
Initializing the Data Directory in PostgreSQL
Creating a Database in PostgreSQL
Creating Database Users in PostgreSQL
Deleting Database Users in PostgreSQL
Granting and Revoking Privileges in PostgreSQL
Database Clients
SSH Access to a Database
Local GUI Client Access to a Database
Web Access to a Database
The MySQL Command-Line Client
The PostgreSQL Command-Line Client
Graphical Clients
19 File and Print
Using the Network File System
NFS Server Configuration
NFS Client Configuration
Putting Samba to Work
Configuring Samba with system-config-samba
Configuring Samba with SWAT
Manually Configuring Samba with /etc/samba/smb.conf
Testing Samba with the testparm Command
Starting the smbd Daemon
Mounting Samba Shares
Network and Remote Printing with Fedora
Enabling Network Printing on a LAN
Session Message Block Printing
Network-Attached Printer Configuration and Printing
Using the Common Unix Printing System GUI
Console Print Control
Using Basic Print Commands
Managing Print Jobs
Avoiding Printer Support Problems
All-in-One (Print/Fax/Scan) Devices
Using USB and Legacy Printers
20 Remote File Serving with FTP
Choosing an FTP Server
Choosing an Authenticated or Anonymous Server
Fedora FTP Server Packages
Other FTP Servers
Installing FTP Software
The FTP User
xinetd Configuration for wu-ftpd
Configuring xinetd for the wu-ftp Server
Starting the Very Secure FTP Server (vsftpd) Package
Configuring the Very Secure FTP Server
Controlling Anonymous Access
Other vsftpd Server Configuration Files
Configuring the wu-ftpd Server
Using Commands in the ftpaccess File to Configure wu-ftpd
Configure Access Control
Configure User Information
Configure System Logging
Configure Permission Control
Configure Commands Directed Toward the cdpath
Structure of the shutdown File
Configuring FTP Server File-Conversion Actions
Strip Prefix
Strip Postfix
Add-On Prefix
Add-On Postfix
External Command
An Example of Conversions in Action
Using ftphosts to Allow or Deny FTP Server Connection
Using Commands for Server Administration
Display Information About Connected Users
Count the Number of Connections
Use /usr/sbin/ftpshut to Schedule FTP Server Downtime
Use /var/log/xferlog to View a Log of Server Transactions
21 Handling Electronic Mail
How Email Is Sent and Received
The Mail Transport Agent
Choosing an MTA
The Mail Delivery Agent
The Mail User Agent
Basic Sendmail Configuration and Operation
Configuring Masquerading
Using Smart Hosts
Setting Message Delivery Intervals
Building the sendmail.cf File
Mail Relaying
Forwarding Email with Aliases
Rejecting Email from Specified Sites
Introducing Postfix
Making the Switch
Using Fetchmail to Retrieve Mail
Installing Fetchmail
Configuring Fetchmail
Choosing a Mail Delivery Agent
Virus Scanners
Special Mail Delivery Agents
Mail Daemons
Alternatives to Microsoft Exchange Server
Microsoft Exchange Server/Outlook Client
CommuniGate Pro
Oracle Collaboration Suite
Open Xchange
Web Resources
22 Setting Up a Proxy Server
What Is a Proxy Server?
Installing Squid
Configuring Clients
Access Control Lists
Specifying Client IP Addresses
Sample Configurations
23 Managing DNS 511
Configuring DNS for Clients
The /etc/host.conf File
The /etc/nsswitch.conf File
The /etc/hosts File
The /etc/resolv.conf File
Understanding the Changes Made by DHCP
Essential DNS Concepts
How Nameservers Store DNS Structure Information
How DNS Provides Name Service Information to Users
Name Resolution in Practice
Using DNS Tools
Configuring a Local Caching Nameserver
Your Own Domain Name and Third-Party DNS
Providing DNS for a Real Domain with BIND
Resolver Configuration
Running the named Nameserver Daemon
Providing DNS for a Real Domain
Forward Zone
Reverse Zone
Registering the Domain
Troubleshooting DNS
Delegation Problems
Reverse Lookup Problems
Maintaining Accurate Serial Numbers
Troubleshooting Problems in Zone Files
Tools for Troubleshooting
Using Fedora’s BIND Configuration Tool
Managing DNS Security
Unix Security Considerations
DNS Security Considerations
Using DNS Security Extensions
Using Split DNS
Configuring the Server
Populating Your Directory
Configuring Clients
Part V Programming Linux
25 Using Perl
Using Perl with Linux
Perl Versions
A Simple Perl Program
Perl Variables and Data Structures
Perl Variable Types
Special Variables
Comparison Operators
Compound Operators
Arithmetic Operators
Other Operators
Special String Constants
Conditional Statements
last and next
do ... while and do ... until
Regular Expressions
Access to the Shell
Modules and CPAN
26 Working with Python
Python on Linux
Getting Interactive
The Basics of Python
More on Strings
Conditionals and Looping
Object Orientation
Class and Object Variables
Constructors and Destructors
Class Inheritance
Multiple Inheritance
The Standard Library and the Vaults of Parnassus
27 Writing PHP Scripts
Introduction to PHP
Entering and Exiting PHP Mode
Escape Sequences
Variable Substitution
Conditional Statements
Special Operators
Including Other Files
Basic Functions
Handling HTML Forms
28 C/C++ Programming Tools for Fedora
Programming in C/C++ with Linux
Using the C Programming Project Management Tools
Provided with Fedora Linux
Building Programs with make
Using the autoconf Utility to Configure Code
Managing Software Projects with Subversion
Debugging Tools
Using the GNU C Compiler
Graphical Development Tools
Using the KDevelop Client
The Glade Client for Developing in GNOME
29 Mono
Why Use Mono?
Mono on the Command Line
The Structure of a C# Program
Printing Out the Parameters
Creating Your Own Variables
Adding Some Error Checking
Building on Mono’s libraries
Searching with Beagle
Creating a GUI with Gtk#
Part VI Fedora Housekeeping
30 Securing Your Machines
Understanding Computer Attacks
Assessing Your Vulnerability
Protecting Your Machine
Securing a Wireless Network
Passwords and Physical Security
Configuring and Using Tripwire
Configuring Your Firewall
Forming a Disaster Recovery Plan
Keeping Up-to-Date on Linux Security Issues
Understanding SELinux
31 Performance Tuning
Hard Disk
Using the BIOS and Kernel to Tune the Disk Drives
The hdparm Command
File System Tuning
The tune2fs Command
The e2fsck Command
The badblocks Command
Disabling File Access Time
Measuring Key Buffer Usage
Using the Query Cache
Miscellaneous Tweaks
Query Optimization
32 Command Line Masterclass
Why Use the Shell?
Basic Commands
Printing the Contents of a File with cat
Changing Directories with cd
Changing File Access Permissions with chmod
Copying Files with cp
Printing Disk Usage with du
Finding Files by Searching with find
Searches for a String in Input with grep
Paging Through Output with less
Creating Links Between Files with ln
Finding Files from an Index with locate
Listing Files in the Current Directory with ls
Reading Manual Pages with man
Making Directories with mkdir
Moving Files with mv
Listing Processes with ps
Deleting Files and Directories with rm
Printing the Last Lines of a File with tail
Printing Resource Usage with top
Printing the Location of a Command with which
Combining Commands
Multiple Terminals
Date and Time
Using the date Command
Using the hwclock Command
Capturing Screen Images
33 Writing and Executing a Shell Script
Running a Shell Program
Interpreting Shell Scripts Through Specific Shells
Using Variables in Shell Scripts
Assigning a Value to a Variable
Accessing Variable Values
Positional Parameters
Using a Simple Script to Automate Tasks
Built-in Variables
Special Characters
Use Double Quotes to Resolve Variables in Strings
with Embedded Spaces
Using Single Quotes to Maintain Unexpanded Variables
Using the Backslash as an Escape Character
Using the Backtick to Replace a String with Output
Comparison of Expressions in pdksh and bash
String Comparison
Number Comparison
File Operators
Logical Operators
Special Statements: for, while, and Others
The for Statement
The while Statement
The until Statement
The shift Statement
The if Statement
The case Statement
The break and exit Statements
Using Functions in Shell Scripts
34 Advanced Software Management
Using RPM for Software Management
rpm at the Command Line
Two Handy Options
Using rpm on the Command Line
Extracting a Single File from an RPM File
Getting Started with yum
Running yum Noninteractively
Using yum to Remove Packages
Maintaining yum
Using yum to Manage Package Inventory
Configuring yum
Using pirut for Software Management
Using Yum Extender
Creating a Local yum Repository
35 Managing the File System
The Fedora File System Basics
Physical Structure of the File System on the Disk
File System Partitions
Network and Disk File Systems
Viewing Your System’s File Systems
Working with the ext3 File System
Understanding the ext3 File System Structure
Journaling Options in ext3
Verifying File Integrity in ext3 File Systems with the fsck Utility
Other File Systems Available to Fedora
The Reiser File System (reiserfs)
JFS and XFS File Systems
DOS File Systems
CD-ROM File Systems
Creating a File System
The Disk as a Storage Device
Creating the Partition Table
Creating the File System on the Partitioned Disk
Creating a DOS File System with mkdosfs
Mounting File Systems
The mount Command
The umount Command
Mounting Automatically with /etc/fstab
Relocating a File System
Installing the New Drive
Creating the Partition Table and Formatting the Disk
Mounting the New Partition and Populating It with
the Relocated Files
Logical Volume Management
File System Manipulation
Creating a File System for Testing
Mounting a Partition as Read-Only on a Running System
Examine an initrd Image File
36 Kernel and Module Management
The Linux Kernel
The Linux Source Tree
Types of Kernels
Managing Modules
When to Recompile
Kernel Versions
Obtaining the Kernel Sources
Patching the Kernel
Compiling the Kernel
Using xconfig to Configure the Kernel
Creating an Initial RAM Disk Image
When Something Goes Wrong
Errors During Compile
Runtime Errors, Boot Loader Problems, and Kernel Oops
Part VII Appendices
A The History of Red Hat and Fedora
What Is Fedora?
Fedora for Business
Fedora in Your Home
64-Bit Fedora
Fedora on the PPC Platform
Fedora on Multi-Core Machines
B Installation Resources
Planning Your Fedora Deployment
Business Considerations
System Considerations
User Considerations
A Predeployment Planning Checklist
Planning the Installation
Hardware Requirements
Meeting the Minimum Fedora Hardware Requirements
Using Legacy Hardware
Planning for Hard Drive Storage for Your Fedora Installation
Checking Hardware Compatibility
Preparing for Potential Hardware Problems
Preparing and Using a Hardware Inventory
Preparing for the Install Process
Partitioning Before and During Installation
Choosing a Partitioning Scheme
Hosting Parts of the Linux File System on Separate Partitions
Using Fedora’s kickstart Installation Method
C Fedora and Linux Internet Resources
Websites and Search Engines
Web Search Tips
Google Is Your Friend
Fedora Package Listings
Commercial Support
Linux Guides
The Fedora Project
Red Hat Linux
Mini-CD Linux Distributions
Floppy-Based Linux Distributions
Various Intel-Based Linux Distributions
PowerPC-Based Linux Distributions
Linux on Laptops and PDAs
Usenet Newsgroups
Mailing Lists
Fedora Project Mailing Lists
Red Hat Mailing Lists
Internet Relay Chat

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