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Borland Object Pascal Tutorial


Borland Object Pascal Tutorial

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Index Borland Object Pascal Tutorial

Object Pascal
Language Guide
Borland Object Pascal
Chapter 1
What’s in this manual?
Using Object Pascal
Typographical conventions
Other sources of information
Software registration and technical support
Part I
Basic language description
Chapter 2
Program organization
Pascal source files
Other files used to build applications
Compiler-generated files
Example programs
A simple console application
A more complicated example
A native application
Chapter 3
Programs and units
Program structure and syntax
The program heading
The program uses clause
The block
Unit structure and syntax
The unit heading
The interface section
The implementation section
The initialization section
The finalization section
Unit references and the uses clause
The syntax of a uses clause
Multiple and indirect unit references
Circular unit references
Chapter 4
Syntactic elements
Fundamental syntactic elements
Special symbols
Qualified identifiers
Reserved words
Character strings
Comments and compiler directives
Arithmetic operators
Boolean operators
Logical (bitwise) operators
String operators
Pointer operators
Set operators
Relational operators
Class operators
The @ operator
Operator precedence rules
Function calls
Set constructors
Value typecasts
Variable typecasts
Declarations and statements
Simple statements
Assignment statements
Procedure and function calls
Goto statements
Structured statements
Compound statements
With statements
If statements
Case statements
Control loops
Repeat statements
While statements
For statements
Blocks and scope
Naming conflicts
Chapter 5
Data types, variables, and constants
About types
Simple types
Ordinal types
Integer types
Character types
Boolean types
Enumerated types
Subrange types
Real types
String types
Short strings
Long strings
About extended character sets
Working with null-terminated strings
Using pointers, arrays, and string
Mixing Pascal strings and
null-terminated strings
Structured types
Static arrays
Dynamic arrays
Array types and assignments
Variant parts in records
File types
Pointers and pointer types
Overview of pointers
Pointer types
Character pointers
Other standard pointer types
Procedural types
Procedural types in statements
and expressions
Variant types
Variant type conversions
Variants in expressions
Variant arrays
Type compatibility and identity
Type identity
Type compatibility
Declaring types
Declaring variables
Absolute addresses
Dynamic variables
Thread-local variables
Declared constants
True constants
Constant expressions
Resource strings
Typed constants
Array constants
Record constants
Procedural constants
Pointer constants
Chapter 6
Procedures and functions
Declaring procedures and functions
Procedure declarations
Function declarations
Calling conventions
Forward and interface declarations
External declarations
Linking to object files
Importing functions from libraries
Overloading procedures and functions
Local declarations
Nested routines
Parameter semantics
Value and variable parameters
Constant parameters
Out parameters
Untyped parameters
String parameters
Array parameters
Open array parameters
Variant open array parameters
Default parameters
Default parameters and
overloaded routines
Default parameters in forward and
interface declarations
Calling procedures and functions
Open array constructors
Chapter 7
Classes and objects
Class types
Inheritance and scope
TObject and TClass
Compatibility of class types
Object types
Visibility of class members
Private, protected, and public members
Published members
Automated members
Forward declarations and mutually
dependent classes
Method declarations and implementations
Method binding
Static methods
Virtual and dynamic methods
Abstract methods
Overloading methods
Message methods
Implementing message methods
Message dispatching
Property access
Array properties
Index specifiers
Storage specifiers
Property overrides and redeclarations
Class references
Class-reference types
Constructors and class references
Class operators
The is operator
The as operator
Class methods
When to use exceptions
Declaring exception types
Raising and handling exceptions
Try...except statements
Re-raising exceptions
Nested exceptions
Try...finally statements
Standard exception classes and routines
Chapter 8
Standard routines and I/O
File input and output
Text files
Untyped files
Text-file device drivers
Device functions
The Open function
The InOut function
The Flush function
The Close function
Handling null-terminated strings
Wide-character strings
Other standard routines
Part II
Special topics
Chapter 9
Libraries and packages
Calling dynamically loadable libraries
Static loading
Dynamic loading
Writing dynamically loadable libraries
The exports clause
Library initialization code
Global variables in a library
Libraries and system variables
Exceptions and runtime errors in libraries
Shared-memory manager (Windows only)
Package declarations and source files
Naming packages
The requires clause
The contains clause
Compiling packages
Generated files
Package-specific compiler directives
Package-specific command-line
compiler switches
Chapter 10
Object interfaces
Interface types
IInterface and inheritance
Interface identification
Calling conventions for interfaces
Interface properties
Forward declarations
Implementing interfaces
Method resolution clauses
Changing inherited implementations
Implementing interfaces by delegation
Delegating to an interface-type property
Delegating to a class-type property
Interface references
Interface assignment-compatibility
Interface typecasts
Interface querying
Automation objects (Windows only)
Dispatch interface types (Windows only)
Dispatch interface methods
(Windows only)
Dispatch interface properties
Accessing Automation objects
(Windows only)
Automation object method-call syntax
Dual interfaces (Windows only)
Chapter 11
Memory management
The memory manager (Windows only)
Internal data formats
Integer types
Character types
Boolean types
Enumerated types
Real types
The Real48 type
The Single type
The Double type
The Extended type
The Comp type
The Currency type
Pointer types
Short string types
Long string types
Wide string types
Set types
Static array types
Dynamic array types
Record types
File types
Procedural types
Class types
Class reference types
Variant types
Chapter 12
Program control
Parameters and function results
Parameter passing
Register saving conventions
Function results
Method calls
Constructors and destructors
Exit procedures
Chapter 13
Inline assembler code
The asm statement
Register use
Assembler statement syntax
Instruction opcodes
RET instruction sizing
Automatic jump sizing
Assembler directives
Differences between Object Pascal and assembler expressions
Expression elements
Expression classes
Expression types
Expression operators
Assembler procedures and functions
Appendix A
Object Pascal grammar
Reserved words
Binary arithmetic operators
Unary arithmetic operators
Boolean operators
Logical (bitwise) operators
String operators
Character-pointer operators
Set operators
Relational operators
Precedence of operators
Generic integer types for 32-bit implementations of Object Pascal
Fundamental integer types
Fundamental real types
Generic real types
String types
Selected pointer types declared in System and SysUtils
Variant type conversion rules
Types for integer constants
Calling conventions
Input and output procedures/functions
Null-terminated string functions
Other standard routines
Compiled package files
Package-specific compiler directives
Package-specific command-line compiler switches
Long string dynamic memory layout
Wide string dynamic memory layout (Windows only)
Dynamic array memory layout
Type alignment masks
Virtual method table layout
Built-in assembler reserved words
String examples and their values
CPU registers
Symbols recognized by the built-in assembler assembler
Predefined type symbols
Precedence of built-in assembler expression operators
Definitions of built-in assembler expression operators

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