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MySQL Tutorial


 









MySQL Tutorial

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Index MySQL Tutorial


Table of Contents
1 General Information
About This Manual
Conventions Used in This Manual
What Is MySQL?
History of MySQL
The Main Features of MySQL
How Stable Is MySQL?
How Big Can MySQL Tables Be?
Year 2000 Compliance
What Is MySQL AB?
The Business Model and Services of MySQL AB
Support
Training and Certi cation
Consulting
Commercial Licenses
Partnering
Advertising
Contact Information
MySQL Support and Licensing
Support Ofiered by MySQL AB
Copyrights and Licenses Used by MySQL
MySQL Licenses
Using the MySQL Software Under a Commercial License
Using the MySQL Software for Free Under GPL
MySQL AB Logos and Trademarks
The Original MySQL Logo
MySQL Logos that may be Used Without Written Permission
When do you need a Written Permission to use MySQL Logos?
MySQL AB Partnership Logos
Using the word MySQL in Printed Text or Presentations
Using the word MySQL in Company and Product Names
MySQL 4.0 In A Nutshell
Stepwise Rollout
Ready for Immediate Development Use
Embedded MySQL
Other Features Available From MySQL 4.0.0
Future MySQL 4.0 Features
MySQL 4, The Following Development Release
MySQL Information Sources
MySQL Portals
MySQL Mailing Lists
The MySQL Mailing Lists
Asking Questions or Reporting Bugs
How to Report Bugs or Problems
Guidelines for Answering Questions on the Mailing List
How Standards-compatible Is MySQL?
What Standards Does MySQL Follow?
Running MySQL in ANSI Mode
MySQL Extensions to ANSI SQL92
MySQL Difierences Compared to ANSI SQL92
SubSELECTs
SELECT INTO TABLE
Transactions and Atomic Operations
Stored Procedures and Triggers
Foreign Keys
Views
`--' as the Start of a Comment
Known Errors and Design De ciencies in MySQL
MySQL and The Future (The TODO)
Things That Should be in 4.0
Things That Should be in 4
Things That Must be Done in the Near Future
Things That Have to be Done Sometime
Things We Don't Plan To Do
How MySQL Compares to Other Databases
How MySQL Compares to mSQL
How to Convert mSQL Tools for MySQL
How mSQL and MySQL Client/Server Communications Protocols Difier
How mSQL 2.0 SQL Syntax Difiers from MySQL
How MySQL Compares to PostgreSQL
MySQL and PostgreSQL development strategies
Featurewise Comparison of MySQL and PostgreSQL
Benchmarking MySQL and PostgreSQL
2 MySQL Installation
Quick Standard Installation of MySQL
Installing MySQL on Linux
Installing MySQL on Windows
Installing the Binaries
Preparing the Windows MySQL Environment
Starting the Server for the First Time
General Installation Issues
How to Get MySQL
Operating Systems Supported by MySQL
Which MySQL Version to Use
Installation Layouts
How and When Updates Are Released
MySQL Binaries Compiled by MySQL AB
Installing a MySQL Binary Distribution
Installing a MySQL Source Distribution
Quick Installation Overview
Applying Patches
Typical configure Options
Installing from the Development Source Tree
Problems Compiling?
MIT-pthreads Notes
Windows Source Distribution
Post-installation Setup and Testing
Problems Running mysql_install_db
Problems Starting the MySQL Server
Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically
Upgrading/Downgrading MySQL
Upgrading From Version 3.23 to Version 4.0
Upgrading From Version 3.22 to Version 3.23
Upgrading from Version 3.21 to Version 3.22
Upgrading from Version 3.20 to Version 3.21
Upgrading to Another Architecture
Operating System Speci c Notes
Linux Notes (All Linux Versions)
Linux Notes for Binary Distributions
Linux x86 Notes
Linux SPARC Notes
Linux Alpha Notes
Linux PowerPC Notes
Linux MIPS Notes
Linux IA64 Notes
Windows Notes
Starting MySQL on Windows 95, 98 or Me
Starting MySQL on Windows NT, 2000 or XP
Running MySQL on Windows
Connecting to a Remote MySQL from Windows with SSH
Splitting Data Across Difierent Disks on Windows
Compiling MySQL Clients on Windows
MySQL-Windows Compared to Unix MySQL
Solaris Notes
Solaris 2
Solaris x86 Notes
BSD Notes
FreeBSD Notes
NetBSD notes
OpenBSD 2
OpenBSD 2
BSD/OS Version 2.x Notes
BSD/OS Version 3.x Notes
BSD/OS Version 4.x Notes
Mac OS X Notes
Mac OS X Public Beta
Mac OS X Server
Other Unix Notes
HP-UX Notes for Binary Distributions
HP-UX Version 10
HP-UX Version 11.x Notes
IBM-AIX notes
SunOS 4 Notes
Alpha-DEC-UNIX Notes (Tru64)
Alpha-DEC-OSF/1 Notes
SGI Irix Notes
Caldera (SCO) Notes
Caldera (SCO) Unixware Version 7.0 Notes
OS/2 Notes
BeOS Notes
Novell NetWare Notes
Perl Installation Comments
Installing Perl on Unix
Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows
Installing the MySQL Perl Distribution on Windows
Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface
3 Tutorial Introduction
Connecting to and Disconnecting from the Server
Entering Queries
Creating and Using a Database
Creating and Selecting a Database
Creating a Table
Loading Data into a Table
Retrieving Information from a Table
Selecting All Data
Selecting Particular Rows
Selecting Particular Columns
Sorting Rows
Date Calculations
Working with NULL Values
Pattern Matching
Counting Rows
Using More Than one Table
Getting Information About Databases and Tables
Examples of Common Queries
The Maximum Value for a Column
The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain Column
Maximum of Column per Group
The Rows Holding the Group-wise Maximum of a Certain Field
Using user variables
Using Foreign Keys
Searching on Two Keys
Calculating Visits Per Day
Using AUTO_INCREMENT
Using mysql in Batch Mode
Queries from Twin Project
Find all Non-distributed Twins
Show a Table on Twin Pair Status
Using MySQL with Apache
4 Database Administration
Con guring MySQL
mysqld Command-line Options
`my.cnf' Option Files
Installing Many Servers on the Same Machine
Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine
General Security Issues and the MySQL Access Privilege System
General Security Guidelines
How to Make MySQL Secure Against Crackers
Startup Options for mysqld Concerning Security
Security issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL
What the Privilege System Does
How the Privilege System Works
Privileges Provided by MySQL
Connecting to the MySQL Server
Access Control, Stage 1: Connection Veri cation
Access Control, Stage 2: Request Veri cation
Causes of Access denied Errors
MySQL User Account Management
GRANT and REVOKE Syntax
MySQL User Names and Passwords
When Privilege Changes Take Efiect
Setting Up the Initial MySQL Privileges
Adding New Users to MySQL
Limiting user resources
Setting Up Passwords
Keeping Your Password Secure
Using Secure Connections
Basics
Requirements
GRANT Options
Disaster Prevention and Recovery
Database Backups
BACKUP TABLE Syntax
RESTORE TABLE Syntax
CHECK TABLE Syntax
REPAIR TABLE Syntax
Using myisamchk for Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery
myisamchk Invocation Syntax
General Options for myisamchk
Check Options for myisamchk
Repair Options for myisamchk
Other Options for myisamchk
myisamchk Memory Usage
Using myisamchk for Crash Recovery
How to Check Tables for Errors
How to Repair Tables
Table Optimisation
Setting Up a Table Maintenance Regimen
Getting Information About a Table
Database Administration Language Reference
OPTIMIZE TABLE Syntax
ANALYZE TABLE Syntax
FLUSH Syntax
RESET Syntax
KILL Syntax
SHOW Syntax
Retrieving information about Database, Tables, Columns, and Indexes
SHOW TABLE STATUS
SHOW STATUS
SHOW VARIABLES
SHOW LOGS
SHOW PROCESSLIST
SHOW GRANTS
SHOW CREATE TABLE
MySQL Localisation and International Usage
The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting
German character set
Non-English Error Messages
Adding a New Character Set
The Character De nition Arrays
String Collating Support
Multi-byte Character Support
Problems With Character Sets
MySQL Server-Side Scripts and Utilities
Overview of the Server-Side Scripts and Utilities
safe_mysqld, The Wrapper Around mysqld
mysqld_multi, Program for Managing Multiple MySQL Servers
myisampack, The MySQL Compressed Read-only Table Generator
mysqld-max, An Extended mysqld Server
MySQL Client-Side Scripts and Utilities
Overview of the Client-Side Scripts and Utilities
mysql, The Command-line Tool
mysqladmin, Administrating a MySQL Server
Using mysqlcheck for Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery
mysqldump, Dumping Table Structure and Data
mysqlhotcopy, Copying MySQL Databases and Tables
mysqlimport, Importing Data from Text Files
Showing Databases, Tables, and Columns
perror, Explaining Error Codes
How to Run SQL Commands from a Text File
The MySQL Log Files
The Error Log
The General Query Log
The Update Log
The Binary Update Log
The Slow Query Log
Log File Maintenance
Replication in MySQL
Introduction
Replication Implementation Overview
How To Set Up Replication
Replication Features and Known Problems
Replication Options in `my.cnf'
SQL Commands Related to Replication
Replication FAQ
Troubleshooting Replication
5 MySQL Optimisation
Optimisation Overview
MySQL Design Limitations/Tradeofis
Portability
What Have We Used MySQL For?
The MySQL Benchmark Suite
Using Your Own Benchmarks
Optimising SELECTs and Other Queries
EXPLAIN Syntax (Get Information About a SELECT)
Estimating Query Performance
Speed of SELECT Queries
How MySQL Optimises WHERE Clauses
How MySQL Optimises DISTINCT
How MySQL Optimises LEFT JOIN and RIGHT JOIN
How MySQL Optimises ORDER BY
How MySQL Optimises LIMIT
Speed of INSERT Queries
Speed of UPDATE Queries
Speed of DELETE Queries
Other Optimisation Tips
Locking Issues
How MySQL Locks Tables
Table Locking Issues
Optimising Database Structure
Design Choices
Get Your Data as Small as Possible
How MySQL Uses Indexes
Column Indexes
Multiple-Column Indexes
Why So Many Open tables?
How MySQL Opens and Closes Tables
Drawbacks to Creating Large Numbers of Tables in the Same Database
Optimising the MySQL Server
System/Compile Time and Startup Parameter Tuning
Tuning Server Parameters
How Compiling and Linking Afiects the Speed of MySQL
How MySQL Uses Memory
How MySQL uses DNS
SET Syntax
Disk Issues
Using Symbolic Links
Using Symbolic Links for Databases
Using Symbolic Links for Tables
6 MySQL Language Reference
Language Structure
Literals: How to Write Strings and Numbers
Strings
Numbers
Hexadecimal Values
NULL Values
Database, Table, Index, Column, and Alias Names
Case Sensitivity in Names
User Variables
System Variables
Comment Syntax
Is MySQL Picky About Reserved Words?
Column Types
Numeric Types
Date and Time Types
Y2K Issues and Date Types
The DATETIME, DATE, and TIMESTAMP Types
The TIME Type
The YEAR Type
String Types
The CHAR and VARCHAR Types
The BLOB and TEXT Types
The ENUM Type
The SET Type
Choosing the Right Type for a Column
Using Column Types from Other Database Engines
Column Type Storage Requirements
Functions for Use in SELECT and WHERE Clauses
Non-Type-Speci c Operators and Functions
Parentheses
Comparison Operators
Logical Operators
Control Flow Functions
String Functions
String Comparison Functions
Case-Sensitivity
Numeric Functions
Arithmetic Operations
Mathematical Functions
Date and Time Functions
Cast Functions
Other Functions
Bit Functions
Miscellaneous Functions
Functions for Use with GROUP BY Clauses
Data Manipulation: SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE
SELECT Syntax
JOIN Syntax
UNION Syntax
HANDLER Syntax
INSERT Syntax
INSERT ... SELECT Syntax
INSERT DELAYED Syntax
UPDATE Syntax
DELETE Syntax
TRUNCATE Syntax
REPLACE Syntax
LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax
DO Syntax
Data De nition: CREATE, DROP, ALTER
CREATE DATABASE Syntax
DROP DATABASE Syntax
CREATE TABLE Syntax
Silent Column Speci cation Changes
ALTER TABLE Syntax
RENAME TABLE Syntax
DROP TABLE Syntax
CREATE INDEX Syntax
DROP INDEX Syntax
Basic MySQL User Utility Commands
USE Syntax
DESCRIBE Syntax (Get Information About Columns)
MySQL Transactional and Locking Commands
BEGIN/COMMIT/ROLLBACK Syntax
LOCK TABLES/UNLOCK TABLES Syntax
SET TRANSACTION Syntax
MySQL Full-text Search
Full-text Restrictions
Fine-tuning MySQL Full-text Search
Full-text Search TODO
MySQL Query Cache
How The Query Cache Operates
Query Cache Con guration
Query Cache Options in SELECT
Query Cache Status and Maintenance
7 MySQL Table Types
MyISAM Tables
Space Needed for Keys
MyISAM Table Formats
Static (Fixed-length) Table Characteristics
Dynamic Table Characteristics
Compressed Table Characteristics
MyISAM Table Problems
Corrupted MyISAM Tables
Clients is using or hasn't closed the table properly
MERGE Tables
MERGE Table Problems
ISAM Tables
HEAP Tables
InnoDB Tables
InnoDB Tables Overview
InnoDB Startup Options
Creating InnoDB Tablespace
If Something Goes Wrong in Database Creation
Creating InnoDB Tables
Converting MyISAM Tables to InnoDB
Foreign Key Constraints
Adding and Removing InnoDB Data and Log Files
Backing up and Recovering an InnoDB Database
Checkpoints
Moving an InnoDB Database to Another Machine
InnoDB Transaction Model
Consistent Read
Locking Reads
Next-key Locking: Avoiding the Phantom Problem
Locks Set by Difierent SQL Statements in InnoDB
Deadlock Detection and Rollback
An Example of How the Consistent Read Works in InnoDB
How to cope with deadlocks?
Performance Tuning Tips
The InnoDB Monitor
Implementation of Multi-versioning
Table and Index Structures
Physical Structure of an Index
Insert Bufiering
Adaptive Hash Indexes
Physical Record Structure
How an Auto-increment Column Works in InnoDB
File Space Management and Disk I/O
Disk I/O
File Space Management
Defragmenting a Table
Error Handling
Restrictions on InnoDB Tables
InnoDB Contact Information
BDB or BerkeleyDB Tables
Overview of BDB Tables
Installing BDB
BDB startup options
Characteristics of BDB tables:
Things we need to x for BDB in the near future:
Operating systems supported by BDB
Restrictions on BDB Tables
Errors That May Occur When Using BDB Tables
8 MySQL APIs
MySQL PHP API
Common Problems with MySQL and PHP
MySQL Perl API
DBI with DBD::mysql
The DBI Interface
More DBI/DBD Information
MySQL ODBC Support
How To Install MyODBC
How to Fill in the Various Fields in the ODBC Administrator Program
Connect parameters for MyODBC
How to Report Problems with MyODBC
Programs Known to Work with MyODBC
How to Get the Value of an AUTO_INCREMENT Column in ODBC
Reporting Problems with MyODBC
MySQL C API
C API Datatypes
C API Function Overview
C API Function Descriptions
mysql_affected_rows()
mysql_change_user()
mysql_character_set_name()
mysql_close()
mysql_connect()
mysql_create_db()
mysql_data_seek()
mysql_debug()
mysql_drop_db()
mysql_dump_debug_info()
mysql_eof()
mysql_errno()
mysql_error()
mysql_escape_string()
mysql_fetch_field()
mysql_fetch_fields()
mysql_fetch_field_direct()
mysql_fetch_lengths()
mysql_fetch_row()
mysql_field_count()
mysql_field_seek()
mysql_field_tell()
mysql_free_result()
mysql_get_client_info()
mysql_get_host_info()
mysql_get_proto_info()
mysql_get_server_info()
mysql_info()
mysql_init()
mysql_insert_id()
mysql_kill()
mysql_list_dbs()
mysql_list_fields()
mysql_list_processes()
mysql_list_tables()
mysql_num_fields()
mysql_num_rows()
mysql_options()
mysql_ping()
mysql_query()
mysql_real_connect()
mysql_real_escape_string()
mysql_real_query()
mysql_reload()
mysql_row_seek()
mysql_row_tell()
mysql_select_db()
mysql_shutdown()
mysql_stat()
mysql_store_result()
mysql_thread_id()
mysql_use_result()
C Threaded Function Descriptions
my_init()
mysql_thread_init()
mysql_thread_end()
mysql_thread_safe()
C Embedded Server Function Descriptions
mysql_server_init()
mysql_server_end()
Common questions and problems when using the C API
Why Is It that After mysql_query() Returns Success, mysql_store_result() Sometimes Returns NULL?
What Results Can I Get From a Query?
How Can I Get the Unique ID for the Last Inserted Row?
Problems Linking with the C API
Building Client Programs
How to Make a Threaded Client
libmysqld, the Embedded MySQL Server Library
Overview of the Embedded MySQL Server Library
Compiling Programs with libmysqld
Restrictions when using the Embedded MySQL Server
Using Option Files with the Embedded Server
Things left to do in Embedded Server (TODO)
A Simple Embedded Server Example
Licensing the Embedded Server
MySQL C++ APIs
Borland C++
MySQL Java Connectivity (JDBC)
MySQL Python APIs
MySQL Tcl APIs
MySQL Eifiel wrapper
9 Extending MySQL
MySQL Internals
MySQL Threads
MySQL Test Suite
Running the MySQL Test Suite
Extending the MySQL Test Suite
Reporting Bugs in the MySQL Test Suite
Adding New Functions to MySQL
CREATE FUNCTION/DROP FUNCTION Syntax
Adding a New User-de nable Function
UDF Calling Sequences for simple functions
UDF Calling Sequences for aggregate functions
Argument Processing
Return Values and Error Handling
Compiling and Installing User-de nable Functions
Adding a New Native Function
Adding New Procedures to MySQL
Procedure Analyse
Writing a Procedure
Appendix A Problems and Common Errors
How to Determine What Is Causing Problems
Common Errors When Using MySQL
Access denied Error
MySQL server has gone away Error
Can't connect to [local] MySQL server Error
Host '...' is blocked Error
Too many connections Error
Some non-transactional changed tables couldn't be rolled back Error
Out of memory Error
Packet too large Error
Communication Errors / Aborted Connection
The table is full Error
Can't create/write to file Error
Commands out of sync Error in Client
Ignoring user Error
Table 'xxx' doesn't exist Error
Can't initialize character set xxx error
File Not Found
Installation Related Issues
Problems When Linking with the MySQL Client Library
How to Run MySQL As a Normal User
Problems with File Permissions
Administration Related Issues
What To Do If MySQL Keeps Crashing
How to Reset a Forgotten Root Password
How MySQL Handles a Full Disk
Where MySQL Stores Temporary Files
How to Protect or Change the MySQL Socket File `/tmp/mysql.sock'
Time Zone Problems
Query Related Issues
Case-Sensitivity in Searches
Problems Using DATE Columns
Problems with NULL Values
Problems with alias
Deleting Rows from Related Tables
Solving Problems with No Matching Rows
Problems with Floating-Point Comparison
Table De nition Related Issues
Problems with ALTER TABLE
How To Change the Order of Columns in a Table
TEMPORARY TABLE problems
Appendix B Contributed Programs
APIs
Clients
Web Tools
Performance Benchmarking Tools
Authentication Tools
Converters
Using MySQL with Other Products
Utilities
RPMs for Common Tools (Most Are for RedHat 6
Useful Functions
Windows Programs
Uncategorised
Appendix C Credits
Developers at MySQL AB
Contributors to MySQL
Supporters to MySQL
Appendix D MySQL Change History
Changes in release 4.0.x (Development; Alpha)
Changes in release 4.0.3
Changes in release 4.0.2 (01 July 2002)
Changes in release 4.0.1 (23 Dec 2001)
Changes in release 4.0.0 (Oct 2001: Alpha)
Changes in release 3.23.x (Stable)
Changes in release 3.23.52
Changes in release 3.23.51 (31 May 2002)
Changes in release 3.23.50 (21 Apr 2002)
Changes in release 3.23.49
Changes in release 3.23.48 (07 Feb 2002)
Changes in release 3.23.47 (27 Dec 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.46 (29 Nov 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.45 (22 Nov 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.44 (31 Oct 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.43
Changes in release 3.23.42 (08 Sep 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.41 (11 Aug 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.40
Changes in release 3.23.39 (12 Jun 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.38 (09 May 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.37 (17 Apr 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.36 (27 Mar 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.35 (15 Mar 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.34a
Changes in release 3.23.34 (10 Mar 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.33 (09 Feb 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.32 (22 Jan 2001: Stable)
Changes in release 3.23.31 (17 Jan 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.30 (04 Jan 2001)
Changes in release 3.23.29 (16 Dec 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.28 (22 Nov 2000: Gamma)
Changes in release 3.23.27 (24 Oct 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.26
Changes in release 3.23.25
Changes in release 3.23.24 (08 Sep 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.23
Changes in release 3.23.22 (31 Jul 2000)
Changes in release 3.23.21
Changes in release 3.23.20
Changes in release 3.23.19
Changes in release 3.23.18
Changes in release 3.23.17
Changes in release 3.23.16
Changes in release 3.23.15 (May 2000: Beta)
Changes in release 3.23.14
Changes in release 3.23.13
Changes in release 3.23.12
Changes in release 3.23.11
Changes in release 3.23.10
Changes in release 3.23.9
Changes in release 3.23.8
Changes in release 3.23.7
Changes in release 3.23.6
Changes in release 3.23.5
Changes in release 3.23.4
Changes in release 3.23.3
Changes in release 3.23.2
Changes in release 3.23.1
Changes in release 3.23.0 (Sep 1999: Alpha
Changes in release 3.22.x (Older; still supported)
Changes in release 3.22.35
Changes in release 3.22.34
Changes in release 3.22.33
Changes in release 3.22.32
Changes in release 3.22.31
Changes in release 3.22.30
Changes in release 3.22.29
Changes in release 3.22.28
Changes in release 3.22.27
Changes in release 3.22.26
Changes in release 3.22.25
Changes in release 3.22.24
Changes in release 3.22.23
Changes in release 3.22.22
Changes in release 3.22.21
Changes in release 3.22.20
Changes in release 3.22.19 (Mar 1999: Stable)
Changes in release 3.22.18
Changes in release 3.22.17
Changes in release 3.22.16 (Feb 1999: Gamma)
Changes in release 3.22.15
Changes in release 3.22.14
Changes in release 3.22.13
Changes in release 3.22.12
Changes in release 3.22.11
Changes in release 3.22.10
Changes in release 3.22.9
Changes in release 3.22.8
Changes in release 3.22.7 (Sep 1998: Beta)
Changes in release 3.22.6
Changes in release 3.22.5
Changes in release 3.22.4
Changes in release 3.22.3
Changes in release 3.22.2
Changes in release 3.22.1 (Jun 1998: Alpha)
Changes in release 3.22.0
Changes in release 3.21.x
Changes in release 3.21.33
Changes in release 3.21.32
Changes in release 3.21.31
Changes in release 3.21.30
Changes in release 3.21.29
Changes in release 3.21.28
Changes in release 3.21.27
Changes in release 3.21.26
Changes in release 3.21.25
Changes in release 3.21.24
Changes in release 3.21.23
Changes in release 3.21.22
Changes in release 3.21.21a
Changes in release 3.21.21
Changes in release 3.21.20
Changes in release 3.21.19
Changes in release 3.21.18
Changes in release 3.21.17
Changes in release 3.21.16
Changes in release 3.21.15
Changes in release 3.21.14b
Changes in release 3.21.14a
Changes in release 3.21.13
Changes in release 3.21.12
Changes in release 3.21.11
Changes in release 3.21.10
Changes in release 3.21.9
Changes in release 3.21.8
Changes in release 3.21.7
Changes in release 3.21.6
Changes in release 3.21.5
Changes in release 3.21.4
Changes in release 3.21.3
Changes in release 3.21.2
Changes in release 3.21.0
Changes in release 3.20.x
Changes in release 3.20.18
Changes in release 3.20.17
Changes in release 3.20.16
Changes in release 3.20.15
Changes in release 3.20.14
Changes in release 3.20.13
Changes in release 3.20.11
Changes in release 3.20.10
Changes in release 3.20.9
Changes in release 3.20.8
Changes in release 3.20.7
Changes in release 3.20.6
Changes in release 3.20.3
Changes in release 3.20.0
Changes in release 3.19.x
Changes in release 3.19.5
Changes in release 3.19.4
Changes in release 3.19.3
Appendix E Porting to Other Systems
Debugging a MySQL server
Compiling MYSQL for Debugging
Creating Trace Files
Debugging mysqld under gdb
Using a Stack Trace
Using Log Files to Find Cause of Errors in mysqld
Making a Test Case When You Experience Table Corruption
Debugging a MySQL client
The DBUG Package
Locking methods
Comments about RTS threads
Difierences between difierent thread packages
Appendix F Environment Variables
Appendix G MySQL Regular Expressions
Appendix H GNU General Public License
Preamble
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
Appendix I GNU Lesser General Public License
Preamble
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Libraries
SQL command, type and function index
Concept Index







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