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LightWave 3D 7 Tutorial


 









LightWave 3D 7 Tutorial

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Index LightWave 3D 7 Tutorial


Chapter 1: Introduction
About the Manual
LightWave Overview
Hardware Lock Installation
Parallel Port Lock (PC)
Upgrading From a Prior Version
Software Installation
Registering Your Software
Contact Information for Registration
Licensing Your Software
Running the Program
Optimizing RAM Usage
LightWave 3D Resources
Internet Resources
NewTek Web and FTP Sites
Community
Technical Support
Chapter 2: Conventions
Typographic Conventions
Directory Structure
Typefaces
Keystroke Combinations
Mouse Operations
Attenti-cons
Key LightWave Terms & Concepts
Working with the Interface
Chapter 3: Common Interface Items
The Hub
Properties
The Image Viewer
The File Menu
Image Control Panel
File Saving
The Magnify Menu
The Visual Browser
VIPER:The Interactive Preview Window
Surface Previews
When Used With Surface Previews
Non-Surface Preview Uses
The Preset Shelf
LScript
LightWave Panels and Dialogs
Math in Input Fields
Enter/Tab Keys with Input Fields
Yes and No
Color Selection
Color Pickers
Standard List Windows
Reorganizing Lists
Context Pop-up Menus
Chapter 4: Plug-ins
Add Plug-ins Command
Edit Plug-ins Command (Modeler)
File Grouping Method
Plug-ins Configuration File
Legacy Plug-ins
Chapter 5: Customizing Your Interface
First-Level Menu Items
Top Menu Group
Adding New Groups
Divider Line
Renaming Menu Items
Automatic More Buttons
Adding Commands
Reorganizing Menus
Default Menu Locations for Plug-in Commands .5.5
Finding Assignments and Commands
Deleting Menu Items
Window Pop-up
Maintaining Menu Sets
Arranging Menu Tabs
Keyboard Shortcuts
Panel-Specific Shortcuts
Customizing Keyboard Shortcuts
Finding Assignments and Commands
Maintaining Key Mapping Sets
Generic Plug-ins
Middle Mouse Button Menu
Chapter 6: Layout: General Functions
The Toolbar Menus
Modeler Access
LightWave’s Virtual World
World and Local Axes
Your Point of View
Changing Your Point of View
Taking Aim
Resetting Views
Viewport Display Mode
Bone Weight Shade
The Schematic View
Parenting in Schematic View
Other Schematic View Options
The Grid
The Grid and Relative Camera/Light Sizes
The Grid Square Size Effect on Positioning
Grid Square Size Auto-Adjustment
Content Directory
Relative Links
Object File Links
Ways to Use the Content Directory
Production Data Files
Scene File Management
Saving a Copy
Recipe for a Scene
Scene Statistics
Selecting an Item in Layout
Selecting Multiple Items
Selecting by Name
Unselecting Items
Layout List Item Pop-up Menu
General Options
Alert Level
Content Directory
Toolbar
Input Device
File Dialog and Color Selection
Automatically Creating Keyframes
Parent in Place
Left Mouse Button Item Select
Frame Slider Label
Frames Per Second
Frame 0 Time Code
Frames Per Foot
Allow Fractional Current Frame
Show Keys in Slider
Play at Exact Rate
Measurement Unit System
Setting the Default Unit
Generic Plug-ins
Comments
Content Manager
Export Scene Mode
Consolidate Only Mode
FX_..
ImageLister
MD_Controller
Schematic View Tools
SelectGroup
Skelegons To Nulls
Other Generics
Scene Master Plug-Ins
ItemPicker
MasterChannel
ProxyPick
Global Display Options
Viewport Layouts
Grid Settings
Fixed Near Clip Distance
Dynamic Update
Bounding Box Threshold
Display Characteristic Settings
Overlay Color
Shaded Display Options
Camera View Tab
Camera View Background
Show Safe Areas
Alternate Aspect Overlay
OpenGL Fog
Show Field Chart
OpenGL Lens Flares
Schematic View Tabs
Layout Commands
LScripts Menu Tab
LScript Commander
Select Hierarchy
Select Children
Shockwave3D Exporter
Export Selection
Quality Controls
Preview Options
Objects
Animating Objects
Animating Bones
Surfacing and Texturing
Cameras
Lighting
VRML97 Exporter
Accurate Translation
High-Performance Output
VRML Creation Settings
So What is VRML?
Animation
Surfaces
LightWave VRML Implementation
Performance Notes
Scene Tags
Spreadsheet Scene Manager
Workspaces
Options
Filters
Mouse Functions
The Item List
The Property Cells
Editing Cells
Envelopes
Timeline
Column Sorting
Chapter 7: Objects in Layout
Loading an Object into Layout
Loading from Modeler
Loading a Single Layer
The Null Object:The Star of Objects
Saving an Object
Saving a Copy
Object vs. Scene File
Saving a Transformed Object
Cloning Items
Replacing, Renaming, and Clearing Items
Replacing a Multi-layer Object
Tools and Commands
Moving an Item
Local Axis Adjustments
Rotating an Item
Coordinate System
Avoiding Gimbal Lock
Scaling Objects
Squashing Objects
Additive Changes
Item Handles
Numerical adjustments
Protecting from Changes
Pivot Point
Moving the Pivot Point
Layout or Modeler
Why Move the Pivot Point?
Rotating the Pivot Point
Resetting Position, Rotation, and Size
Chapter 8: Keyframing
The Frame Slider
Navigating the Scene
Keyboard Shortcuts
Going to a Specific Frame
Playing the Scene
Creating Keyframes
Creating and Modifying Keys Automatically .
Editing Motion Paths Directly in a Viewport
Deleting Keyframes
Delete Motion Key Generic Plug-in
Delete Mode
Threshold
Protection
Saving and Loading Motion Files
Creating a Preview Animation
Preview Options
Undo/Redo Changes
The Graph Editor
Frame Range
The Time Slider
Panel Layout Adjustments
Using the Channel Bin
The Channels Pop-up
Editing Curves
Edit Mode Selection
Copying Keys
Editing Color Channels
Adjusting the Curve Edit Window
Zooming and Panning
The Graph Editor Toolbar
Toolbar Selection Menu
Add Layout Selected
Get Layout Selected
Clear Unselected Channels
Clear Channel Bin
Remove Channel from Bin
Invert Channel Section
Select All Curves in Bin
Reset Bin Selection
Filter Curves
Filter Position Channels
Filter Rotation Channels
Filter Scale Channels
Toolbar Keys Menu
Create Key
Delete Selected Keys
Lock Selected Keys
Unlock Selected Keys
Invert Selected Keys
Snap Keys to Frames
Set Key Values
Bake Selected Curves
Copy Time Slice
Copy Footprint Time Slice
Paste Time Slice
Match Footprint Time Slice
Copy Selected Keys
Add to Key Bin
Numeric Move
Numeric Scale
Roll Keys Left
Roll Keys Right
Reduce Keys
Toolbar Footprints Menu
Toolbar Autofit Menu
Autofit
Autofit Selected
Autofit By Type
Fit Values By Type
Toolbar Display Menu
Numeric Limits
Go To Frame
Reset Graph
Edit Keyboard Shortcuts
Edit Menu Layout
Insert Overwrites Keys
Filter Static Envelopes
Large Autosize Margins
Allow Fractional Keyframes
Lazy Layout Update
Track Layout Time
Allow Passthrough Keys
Lock Motion Keys in Time
Move No Keys Sel
Track Item Selections
Fit Values when Selected
Show Modifiers
Show Tangents
AntiAlias Curves
Show Key Info
Hide Background Curves
Large Keyframe Points
Custom Point Color
Collapse/Show All
Collapse/Show Tabs
Collapse/Show Trees
Other Commands
Graph Editor Options
Undo Last Action
Cancel Changes
Graph Editor Options
Channel Bin Pop-up Menu
Curve Edit Window Pop-up Menu
Key Pop-up Menu
Curve Controls
Multiple Values
Pre and Post Behaviors
Incoming Curves
TCB Spline
Interactive TCB Adjustments
Hermite Spline
Bezier Spline
Linear
Stepped Transition
Dual-handled Control Points
Integrated Expressions
Additive Expression
Libraries
Expression Syntax
Bad Expressions
Subexpressions
Vector References
Expressions Tree
Graph Editor Exercises
Channel Motion Modifiers
AudioChannel
ChannelFollower
Cycler
Expressions
Object References
Sample Expressions
Oscillator
NoisyChannel
SetDrivenKey
TextureChannel
Chapter 9: Object Properties
Custom Objects
Camera Mask
Effector
Frame Rate Meter
Item Shape
Level-of-Detail Mesh Refinement
Protractor
Ruler
ShowCurve
SockMonkey
Speedometer
VRML97 Custom Object
Object Replacement
Level-of-Detail Object Replacement
ObjList
ObjectSequence
Using SubPatch objects in Layout
SubPatch Display and Render Levels
Meta-primitive Display and Render Levels
Morph Targets
Multiple Target/Single Envelope
Animating Endomorphs
Saving Morph Mix
Displacement Maps
Differences from Surface Textures
Displacement Mapped Objects
Displacement Mapping Versus Bump Mapping
Bump Displacement
Displacement Plug-ins
CurveConform
Deform Displacement Plug-ins
Deform:Bend
Deform:Pole
Deform:Shear
Deform:Taper
Deform:Twist
Deform:Vortex
DisplacementTexture
Effector
Expression
HyperVoxelsParticles
Inertia
Joint Morph
Morph Mixer
NormalDisplacement
Serpent
SockMonkey
Control Item Tab
Display Options
Batch Operations
Disabling Deformations
Clip Mapping
Object Dissolve
Distance Dissolve
Sizing Object Polygons
Particle and Line Objects
Size and Aspect Scaling
Unseen by Rays
Unaffected by Fog
Unseen By Camera
Object Shadow Options
Receive Shadows and HyperVoxels
Object Exclusions
Polygon Edges
Edge Z Scale
Sasquatch Lite
Designing Fur and Grass
Rendering
Long Hair
Chapter 10: Bones and Skelegons
Bone-friendly Objects
Selecting a Bone
Bones from Another Object
Activating and Recording Rest Position
Skelegons
Drawing Skelegons
Bank Rotation Handle
Make Skelegon
Editing Skelegons
Changing Skelegon Direction
Splitting Skelegons
The Skelegon Tree Panel
Converting Skelegons to Bones
Bone Strength
Scaling the Strength
Using Weight Maps
Bone Weight Help
Weight Normalization
Auto Weight Maps with Skelegon
Area of Influence
Falloff Type and Limited Range
Joints and Muscles
Chapter 11: Item Motion Options
Parenting
Unparenting
Local Axis Rotation
Parent in Place
Targeting
Where Does It Point?
Inverse Kinematics
Full or Part-time?
Pointing the End of a Chain
Mix and Match
Setting Your Goals
Dueling Goals
Goal Orientation
Breaking the Chain
Stiff Stuff
Item Motion Modifiers
CurveConstraint
Cyclist
Effector
Expression
Follower
Gravity
Motion Baker
Jolt!
Global Options
Keyframes Tab
Randomizing Keys
Jolting Effect
Using Preset Values
Applying Turbulence
Key Settings
Events Tab
Oscillator
Sun Spot
TextureMotion
Rotational Limits
Align to Path
Chapter 12:The Scene Editor
Basic Functions
Pop-up Menu
Keyframes
Adjusting Channels
Adjusting Hierarchy
Effects of Selection
Buttons
Adding Audio
Chapter 13: Camera Basics
Multiple Cameras
Resolution
Pixel Aspect Ratio
Frame Aspect Ratio
Lens Settings
Aperture Height
Camera Settings in a Viewport
Rendering a Limited Region
Memory Considerations
Masking Out a Region
Segment Memory Limit
Antialiasing
Antialiasing Using Edge Detection
Applying a Soft Filter Effect
Motion Blur effects
Blur Length and Real Cameras
Rendering Video Fields
Stereoscopic Rendering
Depth of Field
Chapter 14: Backdrops and Image Processing
Gradient Backdrops
Background Image
Background Plate
Environments
Image World
SkyTracer2
The Atmosphere Panel
The Clouds Panel
The Texture Editor Panel
The Suns Panel
Sun Position
The Sky Baker Panel
Texture Environment
Compositing
Foreground Images
Alpha Images
Creating Alpha Images
Foreground Fader Alpha
Foreground Key
Processing Effects
Limit Dynamic Range
Dither Intensity
Animated Dither
Color Saturation
Glow Settings
Pixel Filters
Halftone
SasLite
Image Filters
Anaglyph Stereo: Compose
Anaglyph Stereo: Simulate
Bloom
Render Buffer View (Post-processing only)
Chroma Depth (Post-processing only)
Corona
Input Settings
Effect Settings
Other Settings
Depth-Of-Field Blur (Post-processing only)
Digital Confusion (Post-processing only)
Extended RLA Export (Post-processing only)
Full Precision Blur
Full Precision Gamma
HDR Exposure
Soften Reflections (Post-processing only)
Render Buffer Export (Post-processing only)
TextureFilter
Vector Blur (Post-processing only)
Overlapping Objects
High Quality Blur
Limits
Video Legalize
Video Tap (Post-processing only)
Virtual Darkroom
Basic Settings Tab
Spectral Sensitivity Tab
Film, Paper, and MTF Curve Tabs
WaterMark
WaveFilterImage
Image Filters
Blur Image
Sharpen
Edge Blend
Multi-Pass Edge Blend
Using on Rendered images
Saturation
Negative
Limit High/Low Color
Posterize
Palette Reduce
Film Grain
Flip Frame
Color Filters
Contrast
MidPoint
Gamma
Luminance
Brightness
Adjust Color
Matte Filters
The Affect Tab
Affected Areas
Preset Shelf
Enable/Disable
Preview Window
Chapter 15:Volumetrics
Background
Computational Issues
About Particles
Normal Fog
Volumetric Antialiasing
Volumetric Plug-ins
GroundFog
HyperVoxels
HyperVoxels and Transparent Surfaces
Jump-starting with HyperVoxels
Exercise: HyperVoxels basics
Exercise: HyperVoxel volumetrics
Exercise: blending HyperVoxel objects
Preview Options
Use Z-Buffer
Sprite Texture Resolution
HyperVoxels Setting Management
Object Type
Sprites
Geometry Tab
Stretching and Rotating HyperVoxels
Align to Path
Blending HyperVoxels
Show Particles
Use ParticleStorm Color
Shading Tab: Surface Mode
Shading Tab:Volume Mode
Baking HyperVoxels
Volume Mode Advanced Sub-tab
Shading Tab: Sprite Mode
Sprite Clip Frame Offset
HyperTexture Tab
Gradient Input Parameters
Chapter 16: Rendering Options
Render Frames
Automatic Advance
Render Complete Notification
Monitoring Progress
Viewing the Finished Image
VIPER
Rendering
Rendering Tab
Ray Tracing Options
Ray Trace Optimization
Ray Recursion Limit
Multiple CPU Systems
Data Overlay
Output Files
Special Animation Types
QuickTime Virtual Reality Object Saver
What is a QuickTime VR Object?
Object Settings Tab
Animation Settings Tab
Saving Individual Frame Files
Using 32-bit RGB Formats
Selecting a Filename Format
Fader Alpha
Recording Images to Tape
Chapter 17: Particle FX
Partigons
Particle FX Panels
The Start Button
The Save Button
Options Dialog
Real-time Display
Loading/Saving Controllers
Controller Groups
Emitter Controller
Emitter Types
Generator Tab
Particle Tab
Motion Tab
Etc Tab
Interaction Tab
File Tab
Using an Object as an Emitter
Wind Controller
Mode Tab
Vector Tab
Gravity Controller
Collision Controller
Using an Object for Collisions
Item Motion Modifiers
FX_Link
FX_Linker
FX_Motion
The Mode Tab
The Vector Tab
FX_Link Channel Motion Modifier
Getting Started
Emitter and Wind
Collision Detection
More Tutorials
Chapter 18: Motion Designer
Elastic Body Models
Operating Motion Designer
Setting Parameters
Property Panel: Object Tab
Group
Target
Collision Select
Collision-Detection
Pressure Effect
Fiber Structure
DumpFileName
Collision
MddFileName
Motion Files
Property Panel: Surface Tab
Basic Settings
Weight
Weight +-
Spring
Viscosity
Resistance
Parallel Resistance
Back-resistance
Structure Settings
Fixed
Sub-Structure
Hold-Structure
Smoothing
Stretch-limit
Compress Stress
Shrink
Collision Settings
Self Collision
Collision Detection
Single-sided
Skin Thickness
Friction
Bound Force
Action Force
Bind Force
Other Surface Controls
Hide
COPY/PASTE
SAVE/LOAD
Material Library
Property Panel: Environment tab
Gravity
Wind1/Wind2
Turbulence
Wavelength
Wind Mode
SAVE/LOAD
Helpful Tips
Options Panel
Supplemental MD Displacement Plug-ins
MD_Plug
Setting Options
MD_MetaPlug
Setting Options
MD_MetaPlug_Morph
MD_Scan
Tutorials
Waving a Flag
Collision Detection
More Tutorials
Chapter 19: Distributed Rendering
Rendering Modes
ScreamerNet Classic
ScreamerNet II
Using Screamernet II
ScreamerNet Rendering Requirements
Getting the Nodes Going
Scene Saving Info
Host Machine Setup
Controlling the Network Rendering
Shutting Down Nodes
Aborting a Rendering Session
Changing the Number of Nodes
ScreamerNet II Syntax
Batch Render on One Computer
Troubleshooting
Rendering Without LightWave
Chapter 20: LightWave 3D Modeling
Components of a 3D Object
Modeling in 3D
Points and Polygons
Editing Objects
Have a Plan
The Modeler Interface
Viewport Titlebar
Modeler Menus
Other Interface Areas
Resetting Tools
Four Viewports
Multi-layer Object Standard
Multi-document Environment
Layout Communication
Layer Navigation
Layer Browser Panel
Hiding Panels
Loading an existing object from disk
Encapsulated PostScript Loader
Starting a New Object
Saving Object Files
Exporting Objects
Export Encapsulated Postscript
Closing Object Files
Custom Preferences
User Commands
Maintaining User Command Sets
Execute Command
Defining a Startup Command
General Options
Content Directory
Default Polygon Type
Flatness Limit
The Default Surface Name
Curve Divisions
Patch Divisions
Metaball Resolution
Undoing Operations
Undoing the Undo
Chapter 21: Points and Polygons
Point Selection
Polygons
Non-planar Polygons
Flatness
Polygon Efficiency
Special-Use Polygons
Polygon Selection
Selection With In-line Points/Polygons
Symmetrical Selection
Volume Selection Mode
Lasso Volume Select
Selection by Criteria
Surface Normal
Surface Normal Functions
Numeric Panel
Chapter 22: Creating Geometry
The Primitive Tools
Tools and the Right Mouse Button
Creating in Perspective
Using the Arrow Keys
Using the Numeric Panel
Actions Pop-up Menu
Box Tool Fields
Ball Tool Fields
Disc/Cone Tool Fields
Make UVs Option
Other Primitive Tools and Functions
The Capsule Tool
The Platonic Solid Tool
The SuperQuadric Tool
The Gemstone Tool
The Equilateral Function
The Gear Function
The Wedge Function
The Toroid Function
The Parametric Surface Object Function
The Plot1D Function
The Plot2D Function
Using the Pen Tool
Using the Pen Numeric Panel
The Text Tool
The Edit Font List Panel
Interactively Creating Text
Modifying the Template
The Text Numeric Panel
The Sketch Tool
Sketching Curves
The Bezier Tool
Spline Curves
The Spline Draw Tool
Creating from Points
Curve Direction
Using Control Points
Smoothing Two Overlapping Curves
Turning Curves into Polygons
Using Modeling Tools on Curves
MetaBalls and Skelegons
The Point Tool
The Spray Points Tool
Making a Polygon
Single-Point Polygons
Random Points
Random Pricks
Stipple
Triangles
Cage
Other Creation Functions
Platonic Solid
Primitives
Teapot
Chapter 23: Modifying Geometry
The Numeric Panel
Falloff Mode
Falloff Meanings
Setting Linear Falloff
Defining a Specific Range
Setting the Falloff Shape
Flexing an Object on an Arbitrary Axis
Setting Radial Falloff
Setting the Falloff Shape
Defining a Specific Range
The Numeric Panel
Symmetrical Editing
Action Center Control
The Move Group
The Move Tool
The Snap Tool
The Drag Tool
The DragNet Tool
The Magnet Tool
The Shear Tool
The Rove Tool
Center Data
Center1D
Rest_On_Ground
Aligner
The Rotate Group
The Rotate Tool
The Rotate Numeric Panel
The Bend Tool
The Twist Tool
The Vortex Tool
Dangle
RotateAnyAxis
RotateHPB
Rotate-About-Normal
Rotate-Arbitrary-Axis
Rotate-To-Ground
Rotate-To-Object
The Stretch Group
The Size Tool
The Size Numeric Panel
The Stretch Tool
The Stretch Numeric Panel
Tapering Objects
Taper Take 2
The Pole Evenly Tool
The Pole Tool
Absolute Size
Smooth Scaling
The Spline Guide Tool
Other Stretching Commands
CenterScale
CenterStretch
The Deform Group
The Jitter Command
The Smooth Command
The Quantize Command
Chapter 24: Multiplying Geometry
Make UVs Option
The Extend Group
The Bevel Tool
Other Numeric Options
Beveling Tips
The Extrude Tool
The Lathe Tool
The Rail Bevel Tool
The Smooth Shift Tool
The Path Extrude Command
The Rail Extrude Command
Single Curve
Multiple Curves
The Extender Command
The SeaShellTool
The Spikey Tool
The Create Skin Command
The Morph Polygons Command
The Combine Group
The Boolean Command
Single vs. Double-sided Polygons
The Drill Tools
The Solid Drill Tool
Faster and Better Drills and Booleans
Patches Menu
The Duplicate Group
The Mirror Tool
Paste Tool
The Array Command
Array Type: Rectangular
Array Type: Radial
Radial Array
The Clone Command
The Path Clone Command
The Rail Clone Command
The Symmetrize Command
Point-Clone-Plus
Chapter 25: Constructing Geometry
Basic Point and Polygon Maintenance
The Remove Polygons Command
The Remove Points Command
The Merge Polygons Command
The Merge Points Command
Collapse Polygons
The Unify Polygons Command
The qemLOSS2 Function
Introduction
Terminology
Using qemLOSS2
The Reduce-Points Command
The Reduce-Polygons Command
Adding Polygon Points
The Knife Tool
The Subdivide Polygons Panel
Randomizing Options
Faceted Subdivide
Smooth Subdivide
Smooth Subdivide
The BandSaw Command
The Split Polygons Command
The Triple Command
The Julienne Command
The Split Skelegon Command
The Triple Fan Command
The Triple Traverse Command
SubPatches
The Freeze Command
Make... Commands
The Toggle Metamesh Command
Judging Distance and Angles
The BoundingBox Command
The PointCenter Command
LScript
Additional
Chapter 26: Detailing Geometry
The Pivot Point Tool
Layer Settings
Flatten Layers
Change Surface
Flip Polygons
Spin Quads
Aligning Polygons
Make 2 Sided
Change Sketch Color
Set Value
Welding Commands
Unwelding Points
Curve Commands
Skelegon and Metaball Commands
Chapter 27: Display Menu
Viewports Menu Group
Zooming
OpenGL Display Clipping
Panning
Automatic Pan and Zoom
View Options
Display Options Panel, Layout Tab
Texture Resolution
Perspective Amount
Background Color
Show Options
Display Options Panel,Viewports Tab
Perspective
Rendering Style
Upright Rotation
Titlebar Shortcuts
Independent Options
Independent Visibility
Display Options Panel, Backdrop Tab
Aspect and Video images
Display Options Panel, Interface Tab
Display Options Panel, Units Tab
Default Unit
Grid Units
Grid Snap
Time Format
Presetting Views
Full-screen Toggle Feature
Selection Menu Group
Point Information
Polygon Information
Expanding and Shrinking Selection
Groupings
Polygon Parts
Updating Old Objects
Point Selection Sets
Selection By VMaps
Select by Map
Select By Map Influence
Select Polygons from Selection Set
Per-Polygon UV Map Selection Commands
Skelegon Selection Commands
Radial Select
Visibility Menu Group
Swap Layer States
Chapter 28:Vertex Maps
VMap List Window
VMap Selection
General VMap Commands
Setting Map Values
Copy, Delete, and Rename Commands
Clearing Maps from Points
CullMap
Normalizing Values
Normal Baker
Weight Maps
Weight Tool Falloff
The Airbrush Tool
Using Weight Maps with Modeling Tools
Vertex Color Maps
Vertex Color Alpha
Vertex Paint
ColorMap Adjust Tool
UV to Weight
UV Map Jitter
Texture VMap
Bone Weights
Point Color Command
UV Texture Maps
UVs and Projection
Guess Viewport UV Image Command
Atlas Map Type
Texture Guide
The Make UVs Command
Creating from Command Panels
Automatic UV Making
Set UV Value
Transform UV Values Command
Flip UVs
Spread UVs
Quantize UVs
Discontinuous UVs
That Dreaded Seam Problem
Enter Discontinuous UVs
Unweld Command
Merge and Weld Commands
UVs Outside the Box
UV Mapping in Everyday Modeling
Per-Polygon UV Mapping
Select UV Seam
Editing Polymaps
Using Separate Editing UV Maps
Quad Polygon Maps
EndoMorphs
Inserting a Layer into a Morph Map
Merging Morph Maps
Rotate Morph Function
Scale Morph Function
VertexPaint
Component and Blend Display
Rendering Modes
Preferences
Default Keyboard/Mouse Operations
Customizing Keyboard/Mouse Operations
Modifying Modes
Setting the Morph Map
Color Mode Tab
Baking the Color
Point Color
Painting a Point
Painting a Polygon Point Index
Painting a Polygon
Weight Mode Tab
Rotating Bones
Renaming Bones
Renaming Weight Maps
Copying and Pasting Weight
Clearing Weight
Normalizing Weight
Trimming Weight
Painting Weight Values
Calculating Weight
Scaling Weight
Clamping Weight
Status of Weight
Lights Mode Tab
Show Mode Tab
Selecting Polygons
Show and Hide
Frequently Asked Questions
Chapter 29: Organic Modeling Tools
SubPatches
Creating a SubPatch Object
Using Weight Maps
Adding More Details
Specific Display Options
Meta-primitive Objects
Metaedges and Metafaces
Radius and Influence Settings
Converting to Metaballs and Metaedges
Metaball Appearance
Animating Meta-primitives
Editing Meta-primitives
Patch Level and Conversion to Polygons
Spline Patching
AutoPatcherMK
Why Spline Patch?
Chapter 30: Image Editor
Quick Access to Image Editor
The Image Editor File List Window
File-handling Options
The Preview Window
Source Tab
Loading a Sequence
Alpha Channel
Interlace
Sequence Digits
Frame Rate
Image Sequence Settings
Edit Tab
Processing Tab
Chapter 31: Surface Editor
Surfacing Objects
The Surface Editor Panel
Surface Edit Modes
Object Edit Mode
Scene Edit Mode
Surface List
Mass Surface Changes
Preset Shelf and VIPER
Preview Window
Basic Surface Parameters
Color
Luminosity
Diffuse
Specularity
Glossiness
Reflection
Transparency
Refraction Chart Index
Translucency
Bump Map
Surface Smoothing
Smooth Threshold
Sharing Points
Using Separation
Double Sided
Comment
Numerical Settings
Envelopes and Textures
Texture Editor
Texture Layers
Copy and Paste
Layer Order
Blending Layers
Layer Type: Image Mapping
Image Map Projection
Planar Projection
Cylindrical Projection
Spherical Projection
Cubic Projection
Front Projection
Fixed Projection
Image Properties
Texture Placement
Surface Size, Position, and Rotation
Falloff
Using the Reference Object
Freezing Reference Object/Camera
World Coordinates
Texture Guide Tool
Layer Type: Procedural Texture
Texture Color and Texture Value
Texture Scale
Procedural Texture Settings
Brick
Bump Array
Checkerboard
Crumple
Crust
Dots
FBM
Fractal Noise
Grid
HoneyComb
Marble
Ripples
Looping Wave Ripples
Smoky1, 2, and 3
Turbulence
Underwater
Looping Wave Ripples
Value
Veins
Wood
Additional Procedural Textures
Coriolis
Cyclone
Dented
FBM Noise
Hetero Terrain
Hybrid Multi-fractal
Multi-fractal
Puffy Clouds
Ridged Multi-fractal
Turbulent Noise
Layer Type: Gradient
The Gradient Bar
The Current Key
Changing Key Values
Changing Key Positions
Smoothing Between Keys
Scale and Shift
Surface Editor:Advanced Tab
Surface Editor: Environment Tab
Surface Editor: Shaders Tab
BRDF
Edge Transparency
Fast Fresnel
Halftone
Interference
RealFresnel
SuperCelShader
Defining Color Zones
Brightness
Colored Lights
Specular Highlights
Surface Baker
Baking Tips
Image Mode
Object Mode
Instant Radiosity
ThinFilm
ZShader
Surfacing Ideas
Surface Management
Chapter 32: Shadow and Light
Not the Real World
Display Size
Exclusions
Saving Lights
Light Types
The Distant Light
The Point Light
Intensity Falloff
The Spotlight
Virtual Projector
Spotlight Viewport Display
Linear and Area Lights
The Cow Light
Light Color and Intensity
Light Intensity Tool
Negative Lights
The Envelope Please
Other Light Attributes
Me and My Shadow
Shadow Type
Shadow Mapping
Transparent Objects
Cache Shadow Map
Shadow Map Size
Shadow Map Area
Smoothing Out an Edge
Lightening Shadows
Lens Flares
Lens Flare Options
Lens Flare Viewport Preview
Fade and Dissolve Options
Glow Options
Central Ring
Anamorphic Distort
Streaks
Lens Reflections
Volumetric Lights
Light Textures
The VIPER Window and Presets
Volumetric Shadows within Lights
Global Illumination Panel
Ambient Light
Shading Noise Reduction
Radiosity
How Radiosity Is Calculated
The Radiosity Settings
Lighting Considerations
VolumetricRadiosity command
Radiosity and High Dynamic Range Images
Ambient Light
Using Radiosity
Caustics
Radiosity and Caustic Caching Considerations
Appendix
Macintosh Information
Right Mouse Button Action
Memory Allocation
Command Line Files
Your Display
Filenames and Extensions
Foreign Object Support
Imported Formats
Exported Formats
Image and Animation Types
Images and Memory
High Dynamic Range Images (HDRI)
Import/Export
Internal Compositing
Preview Compression Codec
Configuration Files
Custom Configuration Files
Layout Startup Command
Customizing Layout Viewport Navigation
Customizing Camera Presets
LightWave Limits
Measurement Units
Do the Math
Math Functions
Functions
Constants
Other
Index







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