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Bridge Design Tutorial - Civil


 









Bridge Design Tutorial - Civil

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Index Bridge Design Tutorial - Civil


Bridge Design Manual
General Information
Manual Description
Purpose
Specifications
Format
General
Chapters
Numbering System
Revisions
Manual Updates
Bridge Design Instruction
Record of Manual Revisions
Bridge and Structures Office Organization
General
Organizational Elements of the Office
Bridge and Structures Engineer
Bridge Design Engineer
Bridge Preservation Engineer
Bridge Management Engineer
Computer Applications Engineer
Consultant Coordinator
Architect
Staff Support Unit
Office Administrator
Design Procedures and Processes
Design/Check Procedures
WSDOT PS&E
Consultant PS&E — Projects on WSDOT Right of Way
Consultant PS&E — On County and City Right of Way Projects
Design/Check Calculation File
File of Calculations
Procedures
To Be Included
Not to Be Included
Upon Completion of the Design Work, Fill Out a Design Completion Checklist
Office Copy Review
Addenda
Shop Plans
Bridge Shop Plans
Sign Structure, Signal, and Illumination Shop Plans
Contract Plan Changes (Change Orders and As-Builts)
Request for Changes
Processing Contract Revisions
Coordination With Other Divisions and Agencies
Preliminary Planning Phase
Final Design Phase
Coordination With Region
Technical Design Matters
Bridge Design Scheduling
General
Preliminary Design Schedule
Final Design Schedule
Breakdown of Project Man-Hours Required
Estimate Design Time Required
Monthly Project Progress Report
Guidelines for Bridge Site Visits
Bridge Rehabilitation Projects
Bridge Widenings and Seismic Retrofits
Rail and Minor Expansion Joint Retrofits
New Bridges
Bridge Demolition
Bibliography
Appendix A — Design Aids
A1 Standard Design Criteria Form
A2 Exceptions to the Standard Design Criteria Form
A3 Design Completed Checklist
A4 Job File Table of Contents
A5 Office Time Report
A6 Not Included in Bridge Quantities List
A7 Special Provisions Checklist
A1 Breakdown of Project Manhours Required Form
A2 Monthly Project Progress Report Form
Preliminary Design
Preliminary Design
Preliminary Studies
Interdisciplinary Design Studies
Value Engineering Studies
Preliminary Project Recommendations (Existing Bridges)
Preliminary Project Recommendations (New Bridges)
Type, Size, and Location Studies
TS&L General
TS&L Outline
Reviews and Submittal
Preliminary Plan
Development of the Preliminary Plan
Responsibilities
Site Reconnaissance
Coordination
Consideration of Alternatives
Designer Recommendation
Concept Approval
Inspection and Maintenance Access
Documentation
Job File
Bridge Site Data
Request for Preliminary Foundation Data
Request for Preliminary Hydraulics
Design Report or Design Summary
Other Resources
Notes
General Factors for Consideration
Site Requirements
Safety
Economic
Structural
Environmental
Aesthetic
Construction
Hydraulic
Other
Permits
Coast Guard
Other
Approvals
Bridge Design
Bridge Architect
Region
Railroad
Preliminary Plan Criteria
Highway Crossings
General
Bridge Width
Horizontal Clearances
Vertical Clearances
End Slopes
Determination of Bridge Length
Pedestrian Crossings
Bridge Redundancy
Railroad Crossings
General
Criteria
Bridge Width
Horizontal Clearances
Crash Walls
Vertical Clearances
Determination of Bridge Length
Special Considerations
Water Crossings
Bridge Width
Horizontal Clearances
Vertical Clearances
End Slopes
Determination of Bridge Length
Scour
Pier Protection
Construction Access and Time Restrictions
Bridge Widenings
Bridge Width
Traffic Restrictions
Construction Sequence
Detour Structures
Bridge Width
Live Load
Retaining Walls and Noise Walls
Bridge Deck Drainage
Bridge Deck Protective Systems
Construction Clearances
Inspection and Maintenance Acces
General
Safety Cables
Travelers
Selection of Structure Type
Bridge Types
Reinforced Concrete Flat Slab
Reinforced Concrete Tee Beam
Reinforced Concrete Box Girder
Post Tensioned Concrete Box Girder
Prestressed Concrete Sections
Composite Steel Plate Girder
Composite Steel Box Girder
Steel Truss
Segmental Concrete Box Girder
Railroad Bridges
Timber
Other
Wall Types
Aesthetic Considerations
General Visual Impact
End Piers
Wing Walls
Retaining Walls
Slope Protection
Intermediate Piers
Barrier and Wall Surface Treatments
Plain Surface Finish
Fractured Fin Finish
Pigmented Sealer
Superstructure
Miscellaneous
Structure Costs
Handling and Shipping of Precast Members and Steel Beams
Salvage of Materials
WSDOT Standard Highway Bridge
Design Elements
General
Substructure
Superstructure
Examples
Bibliography
Appendix A — Design Aids
A1 Bridge Site Data General
A2 Bridge Site Data Rehabilitation
A3 Bridge Site Data Stream Crossings
A4 Preliminary Plan Checklist
A1 Bridge Stage Construction Comparison
A2 Bridge Redundancy Criteria
A1 Bridge Selection Guide
A1 Standard Superstructure Elements
A2 Standard Pier Elements
Appendix B — Design Examples
B1 Preliminary Plan Bridge Replacement
B2 Preliminary Plan Bridge Widening
B3 Preliminary Plan New Bridge
Analysis
Analysis
General Considerations
Philosophy of Analysis Procedures
Analysis Methods
Frame Analysis
Theory
Member and Frame Factors
Partial Fixity
Development of F.E.M.s and Distribution
Influence Lines
Sidesway
Trusses
Computer Methods
General Discussion of Computer Analysis
List of Programs Available
Other Analysis Methods
Energy Methods
Castiglano
Virtual Work
The Buckling Problem
Finite Element
Dynamic Analysis
Special Analysis Problems by Bridge Type
Suspension bridges
Cable Stayed Bridges
Special Problems
Skew
Footing Deflections and Rotations
Appendix A
A1 Concentrated Load Coefficients — General
A2 Concentrated Load Coefficients — Case I
A3 Fixed End Moment Coefficient Chart
A4 Influence Lines — Two Equal Spans
A5 Coefficients and Factors for Double Tapered Members
A6 Stiffness Factors for Tapered Members
A7 Carry Over Factors for Tapered Members
A8 Fixed End Moments for Tapered Members
Loads and Loading
Loads and Loading
Loads
Dead Loads
Live Loads
General
Distribution to Superstructure
Distribution to Substructure
Wind Loads
Wind on Live Load
Earthquake Loads
Other Loads
Thermal, Shrinkage, and Prestressing
Buoyancy
Centrifugal
Force from Stream Current, Floating Ice, and Drift
Load Combinations
Combination of Loads
Load Factor Coefficients
Service Load Coefficients
Application of Loads
Dead Loads
Live Loads
Wind Loads
Earthquake Loads
Foundation Modeling
Procedure Summary
Spread Footings
Pile Foundations
Lateral Spring Input from P-Y Curves
Lateral Spring Input to Dynamic Analysis
Vertical Springs
Stiffness Matrix
GPILE Computer Program
Bibliography
Appendix A
A1 Foundation Design Seismic Flow Chart
A2 Peak Ground Acceleration Map
Appendix B
B1 Basic Truck Loading
B2 Common Response Modification Factors
B3 Seismic Analysis Example
B1 Spring Constants Evaluation Example
Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
Reinforced Concrete Superstructures
General
Concrete and Grout
Classes of Concrete
Strength of Concrete
Grout
Reinforcement
Grades
Sizes
Development
Splices
Bends
Fabrication Lengths
Placement
Percentage Requirements
Design Methods
Strength Design Method
Design Philosophy
Flexure
Shear
Strut-and-Tie Model
Shear and Torsion, ACI Method
Shear and Torsion, Strut-and-Tie Method
Deflection
Serviceability
Working Stress Design Method
Reinforced Concrete Box Girder Bridges
Girder Spacing and Basic Geometries
Girder Spacing
Basic Dimensions
Construction Considerations
Load Distribution
Reinforcement
Top Slab Reinforcement
Bottom Slab Reinforcement
Web Reinforcement
Intermediate Diaphragm
Crossbeam
Basic Geometry
Reinforcing Steel Details
End Diaphragm
Basic Geometry
Reinforcing Steel Details
Dead Load Deflection and Camber
Thermal Effects
Effective Bridge Temperature and Movement
Differential Temperature
Hinges
Utility Openings
Confined Spaces
Drain Holes
Access Hole and Air Vent Holes
Hinges and Inverted T-Beam Pier Caps
Local Failure Modes
Shear Friction Design
Flexural Design
Hanger Tension Design
Punching Shear Check
Bearing Strength Check
Widenings
Review of Existing Structures
General
Original Contract Plans and Special Provisions
Original Calculations
Final Records
Analysis and Design Criteria
General
Seismic Design Criteria for Bridge Widenings
Substructure
Superstructure
Stability of Widening
Removing Portions of the Existing Structures
Attachment of Widening to Existing Structure
General
Connection Details
Expansion Joints
Possible Future Widening for Current Designs
Bridge Widening Falsework
Existing Bridge Widenings
References
Appendix A Design Aids
A1 Reinforcing Bar Properties
A2 Bar Area vsBar Spacing
A3 Bar Area vsNumber of Bars
A4 Tension Development Length of Straight Deformed Bars
A5 Tension Development Length of Standard 90° and 180° Hooks
A6 Tension Lap Splice Lengths of Grade 60 Uncoated Bars
A7 Minimum Development Length and Minimum Lap Splices of Deformed Bars in Compression
A1 r Values for Singly Reinforced Beams fcĒ = 3,000 psi fy = 60,000 psi
A2 r Values for Singly Reinforced Beams fcĒ = 4,000 psi fy = 60,000 psi
A3 r Values for Singly Reinforced Beams fcĒ = 5,000 psi fy = 60,000 psi
A1 Positive Moment Reinforcement
A2 Negative Moment Reinforcement
A3 Adjusted Negative Moment Case I (Design for M @ Face of Effective Support)
A4 Adjusted Negative Moment Case II (Design for M @ 1/4 Point)
A5 Load Factor Slab Design fcĒ = 4,000 psi
A6 Load Factor Slab Design fcĒ = 5,000 psi
A7 Slab Design — Traffic Barrier Load
Appendix B Design Examples
B1 Slab Design
B2 Slab Design for Prestressed Girders
B3 Strut-and-Tie Design
B4 Working Stress Design
Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
General
Criteria
General
Allowable Stresses
Concrete Properties
Strength of Concrete
Modulus of Elasticity
Creep Rate
Shrinkage Rate
Prestressing Steel
General
Allowable Stresses
Prestressing Systems
General
Anchorages
Losses
Instantaneous Losses
Time-dependent Losses
Construction
General
Contract Plans
Shop Plans
Connections (Joints)
Deflection and Camber
Precast Sections
Pre-Tensioning
Post-Tensioning
Washington Standard Prestressed Girder Sections
Properties
Section Geometry
Basic Assumptions
Design Procedure
Prestressing Strands
Development of Prestressing Strand
Fabrication and Handling
Precast Prestressed (Short Span Bridges)
Precast Prestressed Slabs
Precast Prestressed Tri-Beam
Precast Prestressed Deck Bulb-Tee Girders
Precast Box Girders
Precast Girder Bridges
Criteria for Girder Design
Support Conditions
Composite Action
Prestressed Girder Camber
Prestressed Concrete Superstructures
Framing
Girder Selection and Spacing
Slab Cantilevers
Diaphragm Requirements
Skew Effects
Grade and Cross Slope Effects
Curve Effect and Flare Effect
Reinforcement
Simple Spans
Continuous Spans
Roadway Slab
Slab Thickness
Transverse Reinforcement
Crossbeam Design
General
Loads
Geometry and Construction Requirement
Skin Reinforcement
Repair of Damaged Bridge Girders
General
Repair Procedure
Miscellaneous References
Cast-in-Place Bridges
Design Parameters
General
Bridge Types
Section Requirements
Strand and Tendon Arrangements
Layout of Anchorages and End Blocks
Superstructure Shortening
Analysis
Section Properties
Preliminary Stress Check
Tendon Layout
Prestress Losses
Steel Stress Curve
Prestress Moment Curves
Flexural Stress in Concrete
Temperature Effects
Shear
End Block Stresses
Anchorage Stresses
Camber
Expansion Bearing Offsets
Post-Tensioning Notes
Review of Shop Plans
Bibliography
Appendix A — Design Aids
A1 “A” Dimension for P.SConcrete Bridges
A1 W95G and W83G
A1 Prestressed Girder Intermediate Hinge Diaphragm
A1 WSDOT Standard Girder — Composite Sections
A1 WSDOT Standard Girder — Non-Composite Sections
A2 WSDOT Standard Girders Section Properties — Composite Sections
A3 WSDOT Standard Girders Section Properties — Non-Composite Sections 1 of 2
A3 WSDOT Standard Girders Section Properties — Non-Composite Sections 2 of 2
A4 WSDOT Standard Girders Span Range Capacity
A1 W42G Girder Details 1 of 2
A1 W42G Girder Details 2 of 2
A2 W50G Girder Details 1 of 2
A2 W50G Girder Details 2 of 2
A3 W58G Girder Details 1 of 2
A3 W58G Girder Details 2 of 2
A4 W74G Girder Details 1 of 2
A4 W74G Girder Details 2 of 2
A5 WF74G Girder Details 1 of 3
A5 WF74G Girder Details 2 of 3
A5 WF74G Girder Details 3 of 3
A6 W83G Girder Details 1 of 3
A6 W83G Girder Details 2 of 3
A6 W83G Girder Details 3 of 3
A7 W95G Girder Details 1 of 3
A7 W95G Girder Details 2 of 3
A7 W95G Girder Details 3 of 3
A8 End Wall on P.SConcrete Girder — Diaphragm Details
A9 Abutment Type Pier — Diaphragm Details
A10 Intermediate Pier — Fixed Recessed-Face Diaphragm Details
A10 Intermediate Pier — Fixed Flush-Face Diaphragm Details
A10 Intermediate Pier — Hinge Diaphragm Details
A10 Intermediate Pier — End Wall on Girder Details
A11 Intermediate Diaphragm Details
A12 Miscellaneous Diaphragm Details
A13 Single Span Prestressed Girder Construction Sequence
A14 Multiple Span Prestressed Girder Construction Sequence
A1 Precast Prestressed 1Ē-0ē Solid Slab Details 1 of 2
A1 Precast Prestressed 1Ē-0ē Solid Slab Details 2 of 2
A2 Precast Prestressed 1Ē-6ē Voided Slab Details 1 of 2
A2 Precast Prestressed 1Ē-6ē Voided Slab Details 2 of 2
A3 Precast Prestressed 2Ēē Voided Slab Details 1 of 2
A3 Precast Prestressed 2Ēē Voided Slab Details 2 of 2
A4 Precast Prestressed Slab End Pier Details
A5 Precast Prestressed Slab Intermediate Pier Details
A6 Precast Prestressed Slab Layout
A1 Precast Prestressed Ribbed Tri-Beam Girder Details 1 of 2
A1 Precast Prestressed Ribbed Tri-Beam Girder Details 2 of 2
A3 Precast Prestressed Ribbed Tri-Beam Girder Pier Details
A1 W35DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 1 of 2
A1 W35DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 2 of 2
A1 W35DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Design Tables
A1 W35DG Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details
A2 W41DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 1 of 2
A2 W41DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 2 of 2
A2 W41DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Design Tables
A2 W41DG Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details
A3 W53DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 1 of 2
A3 W53DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 2 of 2
A3 W53DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Design Tables
A3 W53DG Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details
A4 W65DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 1 of 2
A4 W65DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Details 2 of 2
A4 W65DG Deck Bulb Tee Girder Design Tables
A4 W65DG Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details
A5 Deck Bulb Tee Diaphragm Details
Appendix B — Design Examples
B1 Post-Tensioning Anchorages
B1 Notes to Designers Post-Tensioning
B1 P.TBox Girder Bridges Single Span
B2 P.TBox Girder Bridges Two Span
B3 P.TBox Girder Bridges Multiple Span
Structural Steel
Structural Steel
Introduction
Design Considerations
General
Girder Depth
Girder Spacing
Estimating Structural Steel Weights
Types of Steel
Available Plate Sizes
Girder Segment Sizes
Computer Programs
Fasteners
Girder Bridges
General
“I” Girders
Design “I” Girders
General
Composite Section
Flanges
Webs
Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners
Longitudinal Stiffeners
Bearing Stiffeners
Crossframes
Bottom Laterals
Bolted Field Splice
Camber
Roadway Slab Placement Sequence
Bridge Bearings
Surface Roughness
Welding
Fabrication
Plan Details
General
Structural Steel Notes
Framing Plan
Girder Elevation
Typical Girder Details
Crossframe Details
Camber Curve and Bearing Stiffener Details
Roadway Slab
Safety Cable Details
Shop Plan Review
Bibliography
Appendix A
A1 Steel Plate Girder Design Flow Chart
A1 Girder Framing Plan and Elevation View
A2 Part Longitudinal Girder Elevation
A3 Primary Stiffeners
A4 Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners
A5 Splices
A6 Optional Web Splices
A7 Fillet Weld Termination Detail
A8 Field Splice Detail
A9 Drip Plate Details
A10 Crossframes
A11 Crossframe Attachment Details
A12 Lateral Plate Detail
A13 Camber Curve and Bearing Stiffener Camber Details
A14 Roadway Slab-Plan View
A15 Roadway Slab-Section View
A16 Safety Cable Details
Miscellaneous Design
Miscellaneous Design
Other Bridge Types
Timber
Railroad
Movable Bridge and Machinery
Cable Stayed
Floating Structures
Suspension Bridges
Tunnels
General
Cut and Cover
Bored
Elevated Railways
Sign and Luminaire Supports
Loads
General
Deadloads
Wind Loads
Live Loads
Ice Loads
Snow Loads
Load Groups
Bridge-Mounted Signs
Vertical Clearance
Geometrics
Aesthetics
Sign Placement
Installation
Dimensioning
Sign Bridges Mounted on Bridges
Design Loads
Vertical Clearance
Geometrics
Foundations
Miscellaneous Highway Structures Design
Impact Attenuator Supports
General Concept
Push Force on Back-Up Wall
Pulling Force from Restraining Cables
Ground Mounted Units
Factored Load Design
Details
Traffic Barriers
Guidelines
Bridge Railing Performance Levels
Available Bridge Rail Designs
At Grade Cast-in-Place Barriers
Bridge Rail Rehabilitation
Policy
Guidelines
WSDOT Bridge Inventory of Bridge Rails
Available Retrofit Designs
Bridge Approach Slabs
Utility Installation on Bridges
Confined Spaces
Guidelines
General Concepts
Criteria for Utility Installation on New Bridges
Special Considerations for Various Districts
Type of Conduit
Types of Supports
Utility Review Procedure for Existing Bridges
Utility Review Checklist
Structural Plate Arches
Bridge Details
Expansion Joints
Design
Specifications for Bridge Deck Joints
Reviewing Shop Plans
Other Considerations
Drainage Design
General
Geometrics
Hydrology
On Bridge Systems
Construction
Bridge Bearings
Purpose
Forces to Be Resisted
Movements
Bearing Details
Orientation of Bearings
Bearing Selection
Bridge Railing
Ladders, Stairs, Grates, Etc
Surface Treatments
Deck Protective Systems
System Types
System 1 (Epoxy Coated Bars)
System 2 (Dense Concrete or Latex Modified Concrete Overlay)
System 3 (Asphalt Overlay with Waterproof Membrane)
System Selection for New Structures
System Selection for Bridge Deck, Widening, and Rehabilitation
Lighting and Electrical Design
General Considerations
Illumination
Navigation Lighting
Electrical Requirements
Bibliography
Appendix A — Design Aids
A1 Sign Structure Foundation Material Quantities
A2 Vacant
A3 Notes to Designers for Truss Sign Bridge Foundations
A4 Double Faced Barrier Foundation Types 1, 2, and 3 for Truss Sign Bridge
A5 Notes to Designers for Monotube Sign Bridge Foundations
A6 Doubled Faced Barrier Foundation Types 1, 2, and 3 for Monotube Sign Bridge
A7 Notes to Designers for Monotube Sign Structures
A8 Monotube Sign Structures — Member and Sign Criteria
A9 Monotube Sign Structures — Sign Bridge Layouts
A10 Monotube Sign Structures — Cantilever Layouts
A11 Monotube Sign Structures — Structure Details
A12 Monotube Sign Structures — Structure Details
A13 Monotube Sign Structures — Foundation Details Types 1, 2, and 3
A1 General Notes and Design Criteria for Utility Installation to Existing Bridges
A2 Guide for Utility Installations Existing Bridges
A3 Bridge Railing Type BP
A4 Bridge Railing Type BP-B
A5 Notes to Designers for Bridge Railing
A6 Traffic Barrier
A7 Traffic Barrier w/Fractured Fin Finish
A8 Pedestrian Barrier
A9 Pedestrian Barrier w/Fractured Fin Finish
A10 Notes to Designers for Traffic Barrier
A11 Utility Hanger Details
A12 Utility Hanger Details
iv August 1998
A1 Expansion Joint Details
A2 Standard Drain Modifications
A3 Bridge Drains Types 7 and 8
A4 Bridge Grate Inlet
A5 Bridge Grate Inlet Type 2
Appendix B — Examples
B1 Notes to Designers — Pin Bearings
B2 Notes to Designers — Spherical Bearings
B3 Notes to Designers — General
B4 Notes to Designers — Post-Tensioning
B5 Notes to Designers — Structural Steel (Box Girder)
B6 Notes to Designers — Structural Steel (Plate Girder)
B7 Notes to Designers — Strip Seal Expansion Joint
B8 Notes to Designers — Modular Expansion Joint
B9 Notes to Designers — Rail Rehabilitation
B1 Compression Seal Design Example
B2 Strip Seal Design — Example 1
B3 Strip Seal Design — Example 2
B4 Strip Seal Design — Example 3
B5 Gmin and Gmax for Modular Joints
B6 Modular Joint Design — Example 1
B7 Modular Joint Design — Example 2
B8 Modular Joint Design — Example 3
B9 Elastomeric Bearing Pad Example for P.SGirder (Prestressed)
B10 Vacant
B11 Vacant
B12 Girder Stop Bearing Pads Example
B13 Elastomeric Bearing Pad Design Chart
B14 Girder Stop Bearing Pads Spacing Chart
B15 Girder Stop Bearing Pads Pad Thickness Chart
Substructure Design
Substructure Design
General Considerations
Loads
General
Dead Loads
Live Loads
Wind Loads
Earthquake Loads
Prestressing Effects from Superstructure
Concrete Design for Substructures
Application of Loads to Substructure Units
Live Loads
Earthquake
Piers
Columns
Spacing of Piers and Columns
Section Shape
Construction Joints
Column Reinforcement
Column Loads
Column Design
General
Slenderness Effects
The Moment Magnification Method
Second-Order Analysis
Resisting Capacities
Service Load Requirements
Seismic Design of Multicolumn Bents
Abutments
Size and Construction Details
Representative Types
Bearing Seats
Bearing Restraints and Girder Stops
Face Slope
Sizing Abutments
Class of Concrete
Abutment and Retaining Wall Junctions
Construction Joints
Drainage and Backfilling
Embankment at Bridge Ends
Abutment Loads
Applicable Loads
Usual Governing Load Combinations
Special Handling of Lateral Forces
Loads on Girder Stop Bearings
Loads on Girder Stops
General Design Procedures
Design for Stability
Earth Pressure at Front Face
Design for Strength
Minimum Reinforcement
Load and Reinforcement Requirements
Requirements for Pile Cap Abutments
Requirements for Pile Stub Abutments
Requirements for Cantilever Abutments
Requirements for Spill-Through Abutments
Requirements for Rigid Frame Abutments
Retaining Walls
General
Common Types of Walls
Cantilevered Walls
Counterfort Walls
Gravity Walls
Cribbing
Cylinder Pile Walls
Tieback Walls
Proprietary Walls
Slurry Walls
Rock Walls
Soil Nailing
Wingwall
Noise Walls
Design
General
Cantilever Walls
Diaphragm Walls
Tieback Walls
Miscellaneous Items
Drainage
Joints
Architectural Treatment
Concrete Fill for Soldier Pile Walls
Detailing of Standard Reinforced Concrete Retaining Walls
Footings
Spread Footings
General
Load Distribution Under Footings
Pedestals
Footing Design
Pile Supported Footings
General Requirements
Pile Spacings
Horizontal Forces on Pile Groups
Uplift Forces
Piles and Piling
General Considerations
Selection of Pile Type
Friction vs
Pile Loads and Spacing
Design Considerations
Column Action
Uplift Capacity
Lateral Resistance
Other Considerations
Concrete Piles
Specifications
Concrete Pile Types
Steel Piling (H Piles)
Timber Piles
Sheet Piles
Cylinder Piles
Seals
Purpose
General
Normal High Water Elevation
Seal Vent Elevation
Scour Depth
Recommended Foundation Elevation
Spread Footings
Seal Positively Required
Seal May Not Be Required
Pile Supported Footings
Drilled Shafts
General
Definition
Characteristics
Terminology
Types of Drilled Shafts
Classification by Load Transfer to the Soil
Classification by Type of Construction
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Drilled Shaft
Advantages
Disadvantages
Preliminary Soils Investigation
Surface Features
Subsurface Investigation
Methods of Investigation
Subsurface Conditions Affecting Construction
Design of Drilled Shafts for Axial Loads
Ultimate Failure vs
Factor of Safety
Spacing, Depth, Diameter Reinforcing, and Concrete Strength of Drilled Shafts
Design of Drilled Shafts Subject to Lateral Loads
General Modeling Technique
P-Y Curves
Analysis by Computer
Shaft Design
Construction Methods
Dry Method
Casing Method
Slurry Displacement Method
Application of LRFD Code to WSDOT Foundation Design
Overall Design Process, Roles, and Responsibilities
Definitions and Geometry
Load Factors
LRFD Load Combinations, Basic Equation, and Characteristic Soil/Rock Projects
LRFD Basic Equation
Characteristic Soil/Rock Properties and Their Use in LRFD
Spread Footing Design
Loads and Load Factor Application to Spread Footings
Footing Bearing Stress and Capacity — Strength and Extreme Event Limit States
Sliding Stability for Footings — Strength and Extreme Event Limit States
Overturning Stability for Footings — Strength and Extreme Event Limit States
Overall Stability for Footings — Service and Extreme Event Limit States
Resistance Factors for Footing Design — Strength Limit State
Design of Footings at the Service Limit State
What the Geotechnical Branch Will Provide to the Bridge Office for LRFD Footing Design 17
Loads and Load Factor Application to Deep Foundation Design
Drilled Shaft Design
Drilled Shaft Capacity — Strength and Extreme Event Limit States
Uplift for Drilled Shafts
Lateral Load Analysis for Drilled Shafts
Group Effects for Bearing Capacity
Group Effects for Uplift
Group Effects for Lateral Loads
Service Limit State Design for Drilled Shafts
What Geotechnical Branch Will Provide to Bridge Office for LRFD Shaft Design
Pile Foundation Design
Pile Type, Pile Size, Bearing Capacity, and Estimated Tip Elevation — Strength and
Extreme Event Limit States
Determination of Minimum Pile Tip Elevations
Resistance Factors for Pile Foundation Design
Determination of Pile Driveability
What Geotechnical Branch Will Provide to Bridge Office for LRFD Pile Design
Bibliography
Appendix A — Design Aids
A 1 24-Inch Diameter Round Column Section Capacity Chart
A 2 36-Inch Diameter Round Column Section Capacity Chart
A 3 48-Inch Diameter Round Column Section Capacity Chart
A 4 60-Inch Diameter Round Column Section Capacity Chart
A 5 72-Inch Diameter Round Column Section Capacity Chart
A 6 Column Design Flow Chart
A 7 Column Design Effective Length Factors
A 8 Buckling Load — Round Columns
A 9 Factor Charts
A 10 Moment Magnification Factor
A 11 Column Design Example
A 1 Wing Wall Notes to Designers
A 2 General Wing Wall Details (applies to 9-A 1, A , A , and A -5)
A 3 20-Foot Wing Wall 2:1 Slope
A 4 15-Foot Wing Wall 2:1
A 5 15-Foot Wing Wall 1 3/4:1 Slope
A 1 Earthquake Force — Retaining Wall
A 1 Stress on a Rectangular Footing Normal Load Outside Kern
A 1 Thickness of Foundation Seals
A 2 Pile Extension Below Foundation Seals
A 1 through 5 Simplified Example for Pile Foundation Design,
Including Resistance Factor Calibration
Appendix B — Design Examples
B 1 through 4 Column Shear Example
B 1 through 5 L-Abutment Design Example — Sheet 1
B 1 through 8 Curtain Wall
Detailing Practice
Drawings
Standard Office Practices
Purpose
Planning
Drawing Orientation and Layout Control
Lettering
Line Work
Scale
Grpahic Symbols
Structural/Architectural Section, Views, and Details
Revisions
Care of Original Manual Drawings
Final Layout
Bar Lists
Bridge Standard Plans and Office Standards
Plotting
Appendix A — Design Aids
A 1 through 7 A bbreviations
A 2 Structural Steel
A 3 Footing Layout
Appendix B — Examples
B 1 Footing Layout
Quantities
General Considerations
Cost Estimating Quantities
Conceptual Stage
Preliminary Plan Stage
Design Stage
Final Contract Quantities
Not Included in Bridge Quantities
Computation of Quantities
Responsibilities
Design Unit
Bridge Projects Unit
Procedure for Computation
Data Source
Accuracy
Preliminary Quantities
Final Quantities
Excavation
Structure Excavation, Class A
Special Excavation
Shaft Excavation
Shoring or Extra Excavation, Class A
Piling
Appendix A
A1 Not Included in Bridge Quantities List
A2 Bridge Quantities Form
Construction Costs
Construction Costs
Introduction
Factors Affecting Costs
Type of Structure
Location of Project Site
Size of Project Contract
Foundation Requirements
Sequencing of Project
Development of Cost Estimates
Types
Prospectus and Design Report Estimates
Preliminary Design Estimates
Estimate Updates During Design
Contract Estimates
Responsibilities
Bridge Projects Unit
Documentation
Cost Data
General
Square Foot Area
Appendix A
A 1 Bridge and Structures Estimating A ids
A 2 Substructure Estimating A ids
A 3 Superstructure Estimating A ids
A 4 Miscellaneous Estimating A ids
Construction Specifications and Estimates
Construction Specifications and Estimates
General
Introduction
Definitions
Standard Specifications
Amendments
Special Provisions
Addendum
AD Copy
Reviewing a Project
Job File
Bridge Rating Form
PS&E Check List (Form 230-037)
Summary of Quantities (Form 230-031)
Plans
Not Included in Bridge Quantities (Form 230-038) (see example 13 B)
Foundation Report
Preparing the Cost Estimates
General
Procedure
Preparing the Specifications
General
Procedure
Preparing the Working Day Schedule
General
Procedure
Reviewing Projects Prepared by Consultants
General
Procedure
Submitting the PS&E Package
General
Procedure
Office Copy Review
Description
Procedure
Appendix A — Design Aids and Forms
A 1 Construction Time Rates
Appendix B — Design Examples
B 1 Construction Working Day Schedule
B 2 Cost Estimate Summary
B 3 Project Cost vsTime Chart
Bridge Rating
Bridge Rating
General
Rating Procedure
Load Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR)
Load Factor Design Rating (LFDR)
Live Loads
Load Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR)
Load Factor Design Rating (LFDR) for National Bridge Inventory (NBI)
Dead Loads
Load Factors
Load Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR)
Load Factor Design Rating (LFDR)
Load Capacity Reduction Factors
Impact
Load Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR)
Load Factor Rating (LFDR)
Reduction Factors (for both LRFR and LFDR)
Ratings for Overloads (LRFR)
Special Rating Criteria
Prestressed Concrete Bridges
Load Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR)
Load Factor Design (LFD)
Reinforced Concrete Structures
Concrete Decks
Concrete Crossbeams
In-Span Hinges
Concrete Box Girder Structures
Concrete T-Beam Structures
Concrete Flat Slab Structures
Steel Structures
Steel Floor Systems
Steel Truss Structures
Timber Structures
Widened or Rehabilitated Structures
Other Special Cases
Load Rating Software
Load Rating Reports
14. Bibliography
Appendix A — Design Aids
A 1 Load Rating Flow Chart
A 2 Source of Rating Factors
A 3 Bridge Inspection Report Condition Codes
A 4 Span Type A bbreviations
A 5 Bridge Rating Summary
A 6 Load Rating Flow Chart
A 7 3D Live Load Modeling Guidelines for Truss Bridges







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