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AASHTO Geometric Design of Highways and Streets Tutorial


 









AASHTO Geometric Design of Highways and Streets Tutorial

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Index AASHTO Geometric Design of Highways and Streets Tutorial


A POLICY on GEOMETRIC DESIGN of HIGHWAYS and STREETS
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
Task Force on Geometric Design 2000 Members
AASHTO Highway Subcommittee on Design 2000-2001
Preface
Table of Contents
Preface
Foreword
CHAPTER TITLES
Chapter 1 Highway Functions
Chapter 2 Design Controls and Criteria
Chapter 3 Elements of Design
Chapter 4 Cross Section Elements
Chapter 5 Local Roads and Streets
Chapter 6 Collector Roads and Streets
Chapter 7 Rural and Urban Arterials
Chapter 8 Freeways
Chapter 9 Intersections
Chapter 10 Grade Separations and Interchanges
Chapter 1
HIGHWAY FUNCTIONS
Systems and Classifications
The Concept of Functional Classification
Hierarchies of Movements and Components
Functional Relationships
Access Needs and Controls
Functional System Characteristics
Definitions of Urban and Rural Areas
Functional Categories
Functional Systems for Rural Areas
Rural Principal Arterial System
Rural Minor Arterial System
Rural Collector System
Rural Local Road System
Extent of Rural Systems
Functional Highway Systems in Urbanized Areas
Urban Principal Arterial System
Urban Minor Arterial Street System
Urban Collector Street System
Urban Local Street System
Length of Roadway and Travel on Urban Systems
Functional Classification as a Design Type
References
Chapter 2
DESIGN CONTROLS AND CRITERIA
Introduction
Design Vehicles
General Characteristics
Minimum Turning Paths of Design Vehicles
Vehicle Performance
Vehicular Pollution
Driver Performance
Introduction
Older Drivers
The Driving Task
The Guidance Task
Lane Placement and Road Following
Car Following
Passing Maneuvers
Other Guidance Activities
The Information System
Traffic Control Devices
The Roadway and its Environment
Information Handling
Reaction Time
Primacy
Expectancy
Driver Error
Errors Due to Driver Deficiencies
Errors Due to Situation Demands
Speed and Design
Design Assessment
Traffic Characteristics
General Considerations
Volume
Average Daily Traffic
Peak-Hour Traffic
Directional Distribution
Composition of Traffic
Projection of Future Traffic Demands
Speed
Operating Speed
Running Speed
Design Speed
Traffic Flow Relationships
Highway Capacity
General Characteristics
Application
Capacity as a Design Control
Design Service Flow Rate Versus Design Volume
Measures of Congestion
Relation Between Congestion and Traffic Flow Rate
Acceptable Degrees of Congestion
Principles for Acceptable Degrees of Congestion
Reconciliation of Principles for Acceptable Degrees of Congestion
Factors Other Than Traffic Volume That Affect Operating Conditions
Highway Factors
Alignment
Weaving Sections
Ramp Terminals
Traffic Factors
Peak Hour Factor
Levels of Service
Design Service Flow Rates
Weaving Sections
Multilane Highways Without Access Control
Arterial Streets and Urban Highways
Intersections
Pedestrians and Bicycles
Access Control and Access Management
General Conditions
Basic Principles of Access Management
Access Classifications
Methods of Controlling Access
Benefits of Controlling Access
The Pedestrian
General Considerations
General Characteristics
Walking Speeds
Walkway Capacities
Sidewalks
Intersections
Reducing Pedestrian-Vehicular Conflicts
Characteristics of Persons With Disabilities
Mobility Impairments
Visual Impairments
Developmental Impairments
Bicycle Facilities
Safety
Environment
Economic Analysis
References
Chapter 3
ELEMENTS OF DESIGN
Introduction
Sight Distance
General Considerations
Stopping Sight Distance
Brake Reaction Time
Braking Distance
Design Values
Effect of Grade on Stopping
Variation for Trucks
Decision Sight Distance
Passing Sight Distance for Two-Lane Highways
Criteria for Design
Design Values
Effect of Grade on Passing Sight Distance
Frequency and Length of Passing Sections
Sight Distance for Multilane Highways
Criteria for Measuring Sight Distance
Height of Driver’s Eye
Height of Object
Sight Obstructions
Measuring and Recording Sight Distance on Plans
Horizontal Alignment
Theoretical Considerations
General Considerations
Superelevation
Side Friction Factor
Distribution of e and f Over a Range of Curves
Design Considerations
Maximum Superelevation Rates
Minimum Radius
Design for Rural Highways, Urban Freeways, and High-Speed Urban Streets
Procedure for Development of Finalized e Distribution
Design Superelevation Tables
Sharpest Curve Without Superelevation
Effects of Grades
Transition Design Controls
General Considerations
Tangent-to-Curve Transition
Spiral Curve Transitions
Length of Spiral
Compound Curve Transition
Methods of Attaining Superelevation
Design of Smooth Profiles for Traveled Way Edges
Axis of Rotation with a Median
Minimum Transition Grades
Turning Roadway Design
Design for Low-Speed Urban Streets
Maximum Comfortable Speed on Horizontal Curves
Minimum Superelevation Runoff Length
Minimum Radii and Minimum Lengths of Superelevation Runoff for Limiting Values of e and f
Curvature of Turning Roadways and Curvature at Intersections
Minimum Radius for Turning Speed
Transitions and Compound Curves
Length of Spiral
Compound Circular Curves
Offtracking
Derivation of Design Values for Widening on Horizontal Curves
Traveled Way Widening on Horizontal Curves
Design Values for Traveled Way Widening
Application of Widening on Curves
Widths for Turning Roadways at Intersections
Design Values
Widths Outside Traveled Way
Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves
Stopping Sight Distance
Passing Sight Distance
General Controls for Horizontal Alignment
Vertical Alignment
Terrain
Grades
Vehicle Operating Characteristics on Grades
Control Grades for Design
Critical Lengths of Grade for Design
Climbing Lanes
Climbing Lanes for Two-Lane Highways
Climbing Lanes on Freeways and Multilane Highways
Methods for Increasing Passing Opportunities on Two-Lane Roads
Passing Lanes
Turnouts
Shoulder Driving
Shoulder Use Sections
Emergency Escape Ramps
General
Need and Location for Emergency Escape Ramps
Types of Emergency Escape Ramps
Design Considerations
Brake Check Areas
Maintenance
Vertical Curves
General Considerations
Crest Vertical Curves
Sag Vertical Curves
Sight Distance at Undercrossings
General Controls for Vertical Alignment
Combinations of Horizontal and Vertical Alignment
General Considerations
General Design Controls
Alignment Coordination in Design
Other Elements Affecting Geometric Design
Drainage
Erosion Control and Landscape Development
Rest Areas, Information Centers, and Scenic Overlooks
Lighting
Utilities
General
Urban
Rural
Traffic Control Devices
Signing and Marking
Traffic Signals
Noise Barriers
Fencing
Maintenance of Traffic Through Construction Areas
References
Chapter 4
CROSS SECTION ELEMENTS
General
Pavement
Surface Type
Cross Slope
Skid Resistance
Lane Widths
Shoulders
General Characteristics
Width of Shoulders
Shoulder Cross Sections
Shoulder Stability
Shoulder Contrast
Turnouts
Horizontal Clearance to Obstructions
Curbs
General Considerations
Curb Configurations
Curb Placement
Drainage Channels and Sideslopes
General Considerations
Drainage Channels
Sideslopes
Illustrative Outer Cross Sections
Normal Crown Sections
Superelevated Sections
Traffic Barriers
General Considerations
Longitudinal Barriers
Roadside Barriers
Median Barriers
Bridge Railings
Crash Cushions
Medians
Frontage Roads
Outer Separations
Noise Control
General Considerations
General Design Procedures
Noise Reduction Designs
Roadside Control
General Considerations
Driveways
Mailboxes
Tunnels
General Considerations
Types of Tunnels
General Design Considerations
Tunnel Sections
Examples of Tunnels
Pedestrian Facilities
Sidewalks
Grade-Separated Pedestrian Crossings
Sidewalk Curb Ramps
Bicycle Facilities
Bus Turnouts
Freeways
Arterials
Park-and-Ride Facilities
Location
Design
On-Street Parking
References
Chapter 5
LOCAL ROADS AND STREETS
Introduction
Local Rural Roads
General Design Considerations
Design Traffic Volume
Design Speed
Sight Distance
Grades
Alignment
Cross Slope
Superelevation
Number of Lanes
Width of Traveled Way, Shoulder, and Roadway
Structures
Bridges to Remain in Place
Vertical Clearance
Right-of-Way Width
Foreslopes
Horizontal Clearance to Obstructions
Curbs
Intersection Design
Railroad Highway Grade Crossings
Traffic Control Devices
Bicycle Facilities
Erosion Control
Local Urban Streets
General Design Considerations
Design Traffic Volume
Design Speed
Sight Distance
Grades
Alignment
Cross Slope
Superelevation
Number of Lanes
Width of Roadway
Parking Lanes
Median
Curbs
Drainage
Cul-De-Sacs and Turnarounds
Alleys
Sidewalks
Sidewalk Curb Ramps
Driveways
Roadway Widths for Bridges
Horizontal Clearance to Obstructions
Vertical Clearance
Border Area
Right-of-Way Width
Provision for Utilities
Intersection Design
Railroad-Highway Grade Crossings
Street and Roadway Lighting
Levels
Traffic Control Devices
Erosion Control
Landscaping
Bicycle Facilities
Special-Purpose Roads
Introduction
Recreational Roads
General Considerations
Design Speed
Design Vehicle
Sight Distance
Passing Sight Distance
Grades
Vertical Alignment
Horizontal Alignment
Number of Lanes
Widths of Traveled Way, Shoulder, and Roadway
Cross Slope
Clear Recovery Area
Roadside Slopes
Roadside Barrier
Signing and Marking
Structures
Resource Recovery Roads
Local Service Roads
References
Chapter 6
COLLECTOR ROADS AND STREETS
Introduction
Rural Collectors
General Design Considerations
Design Traffic Volumes
Design Speed
Sight Distance
Grades
Alignment
Cross Slope
Superelevation
Number of Lanes
Width of Roadway
Foreslopes
Structures
Bridges to Remain in Place
Vertical Clearance
Horizontal Clearance to Obstructions
Right-of-Way Width
Intersection Design
Railroad-Highway Grade Crossings
Traffic Control Devices
Erosion Control
Urban Collectors
General Design Considerations
Design Traffic Volumes
Design Speed
Sight Distance
Grades
Alignment
Cross Slope
Superelevation
Number of Lanes
Width of Roadway
Parking Lanes
Medians
Curbs
Drainage
Sidewalks
Driveways
Roadway Widths for Bridges
Vertical Clearance
Horizontal Clearance to Obstructions
Right-of-Way Width
Provision for Utilities
Border Area
Intersection Design
Railroad-Highway Grade Crossings
Street and Roadway Lighting
Traffic Control Devices
Erosion Control
Landscaping
References
Chapter 7
RURAL AND URBAN ARTERIALS
Introduction
Rural Arterials
General Characteristics
General Design Considerations
Design Speed
Design Traffic Volume
Levels of Service
Sight Distance
Alignment
Grades
Number of Lanes
Superelevation
Cross Slope
Vertical Clearances
Structures
Traffic Control Devices
Erosion Control
Widths
Horizontal Clearance to Obstructions
Cross Section and Right-of-Way
Provision for Passing
Ultimate Development of Four-Lane Divided Arterials
Multilane Undivided Arterials
Divided Arterials
General Features
Lane Widths
Cross Slope
Shoulders
Median Barrier Clearance
Medians
Alignment and Profile
Climbing Lanes on Multilane Arterials
Superelevated Cross Sections
Cross Section and Right-of-Way Widths
Sections With Widely Separated Roadways
Intersections
Access Management
Bikeways and Pedestrian Facilities
Bus Turnouts
Railroad-Highway Crossings
Rest Areas
Urban Arterials
General Characteristics
General Design Considerations
Design Speed
Design Traffic Volume
Levels of Service
Sight Distance
Alignment
Grades
Superelevation
Cross Slope
Vertical Clearances
Lane Widths
Curbs and Shoulders
Number of Lanes
Width of Roadway
Medians
Drainage
Parking Lanes
Borders and Sidewalks
Railroad-Highway Crossings
Roadway Width for Bridges
Bridges to Remain in Place
Horizontal Clearance to Obstructions
Right-of-Way Width
Traffic Barriers
Access Management
General Features
Access Control by Statute
Access Control by Zoning
Access Control Through Driveway Regulations
Access Control Through Geometric Design
Pedestrian Facilities
Provision for Utilities
Intersection Design
Operational Control and Regulations
Traffic Control Devices
Regulatory Measures
Operational and Control Measures for Right-Turn Maneuvers
Operational and Control Measures for Left-Turn Maneuvers
Regulation of Curb Parking
Directional Lane Usage
Frontage Roads and Outer Separations
Grade Separations and Interchanges
Erosion Control
Lighting
Bikeways
Public Transit Facilities
Location of Bus Stops
Bus Turnouts
Reserved Bus Lanes
Traffic Control Measures
References
Chapter 8
FREEWAYS
Introduction
General Design Considerations
Design Speed
Design Traffic Volumes
Levels of Service
Pavement and Shoulders
Curbs
Superelevation
Grades
Structures
Vertical Clearance
Horizontal Clearance to Obstructions
Ramps and Terminals
Outer Separations, Borders, and Frontage Roads
Rural Freeways
Alignment and Profile
Medians
Sideslopes
Frontage Roads
Urban Freeways
General Design Characteristics
Medians
Depressed Freeways
General Characteristics
Slopes and Walls
Typical Cross Section
Restricted Cross Section
Walled Cross Section
Examples of Depressed Freeways
Elevated Freeways
General Characteristics
Medians
Ramps and Terminals
Frontage Roads
Clearance to Building Line
Typical Cross Section
Viaduct Freeways Without Ramps
Two-Way Viaduct Freeways With Ramps
Freeways on Earth Embankment
Examples of Elevated Freeways
Ground-Level Freeways
General Characteristics
Typical Cross Section
Restricted Cross Section
Example of a Ground-Level Freeway
Combination-Type Freeways
General Characteristics
Profile Control
Cross-Section Control
Examples of Combination-Type Freeways
Special Freeway Designs
Reverse-Flow Roadways
Dual-Divided Freeways
Freeways With Collector-Distributor Roads
Accommodation of Transit and High-Occupancy Vehicle Facilities
General Considerations
Buses
Rail Transit
References
Chapter 9
INTERSECTIONS
Introduction
General Design Considerations and Objectives
Types and Examples of Intersections
General Considerations
Three-Leg Intersections
Basic Types of Intersections
Channelized Three-Leg Intersections
Four-Leg Intersections
Basic Types
Channelized Four-Leg Intersections
Multileg Intersections
Modern Roundabouts
Capacity Analysis
Alignment and Profile
General Considerations
Alignment
Profile
Types of Turning Roadways
General
Minimum Edge-of-Traveled-Way Designs
Design for Specific Conditions (Right-Angle Turns)
Passenger Vehicles
Single-Unit Trucks and City Transit Buses
Semitrailer Combination Trucks
Oblique-Angle Turns
Effect of Curb Radii on Turning Paths
Effect of Curb Radii on Pedestrians
Corner Radii Into Local Urban Streets
Islands
General Characteristics
Channelizing Islands
Divisional Islands
Refuge Islands
Island Size and Designation
Island Delineation and Approach Treatment
Turning Roadways With Corner Islands
Right-Angle Turns With Corner Islands
Oblique-Angle Turns With Corner Islands
Free-Flow Turning Roadways at Intersections
Superelevation for Turning Roadways at Intersections
General Design Guidelines
Superelevation Runoff
Development of Superelevation at Turning Roadway Terminals
General Procedure
Turn-Lane Cross-Slope Rollover
Superelevation Transition and Gradeline Control
Traffic Control Devices
Intersection Sight Distance
General Considerations
Sight Triangles
Approach Sight Triangles
Departure Sight Triangles
Identification of Sight Obstructions Within Sight Triangles
Intersection Control
Case A—Intersections With No Control
Case B—Intersections With Stop Control on the Minor Road
Case B1—Left Turn From the Minor Road
Case B2—Right Turn from the Minor Road
Case B3—Crossing Maneuver from the Minor Road
Case C—Intersections With Yield Control on the Minor Road
Case C1—Crossing Maneuver From the Minor Road
Case C2—Left- and Right-Turn Maneuvers
Case D—Intersections With Traffic Signal Control
Case E—Intersections With All-Way Stop Control
Case F—Left Turns From the Major Road
Effect of Skew
Stopping Sight Distance at Intersections for Turning Roadways
General Considerations
Vertical Control
Horizontal Control
Design to Discourage Wrong-Way Entry
General Intersection Types
General Design Considerations
Channelization
Speed-Change Lanes at Intersections
Median Openings
General Design Considerations
Control Radii for Minimum Turning Paths
Shape of Median End
Minimum Length of Median Opening
Median Openings Based on Control Radii for Design Vehicles
Passenger Vehicles
Single-Unit Trucks or Buses
Semitrailer Combinations
Effect of Skew
Above-Minimum Designs for Direct Left Turns
Indirect Left Turns and U-turns
General Design Considerations
Indirect Left Turn or Indirect U-Turn—Using Local Streets
Indirect Left Turn or Indirect U-Turn—Wide Medians
Location and Design of U-Turn Median Openings
Flush or Traversable Medians
Auxiliary Lanes
General Design Considerations
Deceleration Length
Storage Length
Taper
Median Left-Turn Lanes
Median End Treatment
Offset Left-Turn Lanes
Simultaneous Left Turns
Intersection Design Elements with Frontage Roads
Bicycles at Intersections
WheelChair Ramps at Intersections
Lighting at Intersections
Driveways
Railroad-Highway Grade Crossings
Horizontal Alignment
Vertical Alignment
General
References
Chapter 10
GRADE SEPARATIONS AND INTERCHANGES
Introduction and General Types of Interchanges
Warrants for Interchanges and Grade Separations
Adaptability of Highway Grade Separations and Interchanges
Traffic and Operation
Site Conditions
Type of Highway and Intersecting Facility
Access Separations and Control on the Crossroad at Interchanges
Safety
Stage Development
Economic Factors
Initial Costs
Maintenance Costs
Vehicular Operating Costs
Grade Separation Structures
Introduction
Types of Separation Structures
Overpass Versus Underpass Roadways
General Design Considerations
Structure Widths
Underpass Roadways
Lateral Clearances
Vertical Clearance
Overpass Roadways
Bridge Railings
Lateral Clearances
Medians
Longitudinal Distance to Attain Grade Separation
Grade Separations Without Ramps
Interchanges
General Considerations
Three-Leg Designs
Four-Leg Designs
Ramps in One Quadrant
Diamond Interchanges
Single-Point Urban Interchanges
Cloverleafs
Directional and Semidirectional Interchanges
Other Interchange Configurations
Offset Interchanges
Combination Interchanges
General Design Considerations
Determination of Interchange Configuration
Approaches to the Structure
Interchange Spacing
Uniformity of Interchange Patterns
Route Continuity
Overlapping Routes
Signing and Marking
Basic Number of Lanes
Coordination of Lane Balance and Basic Number of Lanes
Auxiliary Lanes
Lane Reductions
Weaving Sections
Collector-Distributor Roads
Two-Exit Versus Single-Exit Interchange Design
Wrong-Way Entrances
Ramps
Types and Examples
General Ramp Design Considerations
Ramp Traveled-Way Widths
Ramp Terminals
Single-Lane Free-Flow Terminals, Entrances
Single-Lane Free-Flow Terminals, Exits
Other Interchange Design Features
Testing for Ease of Operation
Pedestrians
Ramp Metering
Grading and Landscape Development
Models
References
LIST OF EXHIBITS
Hierarchy of Movement
Channelization of Trips
Schematic Illustration of a Functionally Classified Rural Highway Network
Schematic Illustration of a Portion of a Suburban Street Network
Relationship of Functionally Classified Systems in Serving Traffic Mobility and Land Access
Typical Distribution of Rural Functional Systems
Typical Distribution of Urban Functional Systems
Design Vehicle Dimensions
Minimum Turning Radii of Design Vehicles
Minimum Turning Path for Passenger Car (P) Design Vehic le
Minimum Turning Path for Single-Unit (SU) Truck Design Vehicle
Minimum Turning Path for Intercity Bus (BUS-12 [BUS-40]) Design Vehicle
Minimum Turning Path for Intercity Bus (BUS-14 [BUS-45]) Design Vehicle
Minimum Turning Path for City Transit Bus (CITY-BUS) Design Vehicle
Minimum Turning Path for Conventional School Bus (S-BUS-11 [S-BUS-36]) Design Vehicle
Minimum Turning Path for Large School Bus (S-BUS-12 [S-BUS-40]) Design Vehicle
Minimum Turning Path for Articulated Bus (A-BUS) Design Vehicle
Turning Characteristics of a Typical Tractor-Semitrailer Combination Truck
Lengths of Commonly Used Truck Tractors
Minimum Turning Path for Intermediate Semitrailer (WB-12 [WB-40]) Design Vehicle
Minimum Turning Path for Intermediate Semitrailer (WB-15 [WB-50]) Design Vehicle
Minimum Turning Path for Interstate Semitrailer (WB-19 [WB-62]) Design Vehicle
Minimum Turning Path for Interstate Semitrailer (WB [WB-20 and WB-65]) Design Vehicle
Minimum Turning Path for Double-Trailer Combination (WB-20D [WB-67D]) Design Vehicle
Minimum Turning Path for Triple-Trailer Combination (WB-30T [WB-100T]) Design Vehicle
Minimum Turning Path for Turnpike-Double Combination (WB-33D [WB-109D]) Design Vehicle
Minimum Turning Path for Motor Home (MH) Design Vehicle
Minimum Turning Path for Passenger Car and Camper Trailer (P/T) Design Vehicle
Minimum Turning Path for Passenger Car and Boat Trailer (P/B) Design Vehicle
Minimum Turning Path for Motor Home and Boat Trailer (MH/B) Design Vehicle
Acceleration of Passenger Cars, Level Conditions
Deceleration Distances for Passenger Vehicles Approaching Intersections
Median Driver Reaction Time to Expected and Unexpected Information
85th-Percentile Driver Reaction Time to Expected and Unexpected Information
Relation Between Peak-Hour and Average Daily Traffic Volumes on Rural Arterials
Corresponding Design Speeds in Metric and US Customary Units
Generalized Speed-Volume-Density Relationships (15)
General Definitions of Levels of Service
Guidelines for Selection of Design Levels of Service
Weaving Sections
Simple and Multiple Weaving Sections
Estimated Crash Rates by Type of Median—Urban and Suburban Areas (18)
Estimated Crash Rates by Type of Median—Rural Areas (18)
Estimated Crash Rates by Unsignalized and Signalized Access Density— Urban and Suburban Areas (18)
Stopping Sight Distance
Stopping Sight Distance on Grades
Decision Sight Distance
Elements of Passing Sight Distance for Two-Lane Highways
Elements of Safe Passing Sight Distance for Design of Two-Lane Highways
Total Passing Sight Distance and Its Components—Two-Lane Highways
Passing Sight Distance for Design of Two-Lane Highways
Scaling and Recording Sight Distances on Plans
Geometry for Ball-Bank Indicator
Side Friction Factors
Comparison of Side Friction Factors Assumed for Design of Different Types of Facilities
Methods of Distributing Superelevation and Side Friction
Side Friction Factors for Rural Highways and High-Speed Urban Streets
Minimum Radius for Design of Rural Highways, Urban Freeways, and High-Speed Urban Streets Using Limiting Values of e and f
Method 5 Procedure for Development of the Finalized e Distribution
Design Superelevation Rates for Maximum Superelevation Rate of 4 Percent
Design Superelevation Rates for Maximum Superelevation Rate of 6 Percent
Design Superelevation Rates for Maximum Superelevation Rate of 8 Percent
Design Superelevation Rates for Maximum Superelevation Rate of 10 Percent
Design Superelevation Rates for Maximum Superelevation Rate of 12 Percent
Values for Design Elements Related to Design Speed and Horizontal Curvature
Values for Design Elements Related to Design Speed and Horizontal Curvature
Values for Design Elements Related to Design Speed and Horizontal Curvature
Values for Design Elements Related to Design Speed and Horizontal Curvature
Values for Design Elements Related to Design Speed and Horizontal Curvature
Minimum Curve Radius for Section with Normal Cross Slopes (emax = 10%)
Maximum Relative Gradients
Adjustment Factor for Number of Lanes Rotated
Minimum Superelevation Runoff and Tangent Runout Lengths
Runoff Locations that Minimize the Vehicle’s Lateral Motion
Limiting Superelevation Rates
Transition Spirals (23)
Maximum Radius for Use of a Spiral Curve Transition
Desirable Length of Spiral Curve Transition
Superelevation Rates Associated With Large Relative Gradients
Tangent Runout Length for Spiral Curve Transition Design
Diagrammatic Profiles Showing Methods of Attaining Superelevation for a Curve to the Right
Lengths of Circular Arcs for Different Compound Curve Radii
Side Friction Factors for Low-Speed Urban Streets
Relationship of Radius Superelevation, Cross Slope Rate, and Design Speed for Low-Speed Urban Street Design
Minimum Radii and Minimum Lengths of Superelevation Runoff for Limiting Values of e and f (Low-Speed Urban Streets)
Relation Between Speed and Side Friction Factor on Curves at Intersections
Minimum Radii for Intersection Curves
Minimum Radii for Curves at Intersections
Minimum Lengths of Spiral for Intersection Curves
Length of Circular Arc for a Compound Intersection Curve When Followed by a Curve of One-Half Radius or Preceded by a Curve of Double Radius
Track Width for Widening of Traveled Way on Curves
Front Overhang for Widening of Traveled Way on Curves
Extra Width Allowance for Difficulty of Driving on Traveled Way on Curves
Widening Components on Open Highway Curves (Two-Lane Highways, One-Way or Two-Way)
Calculated and Design Values for Traveled Way Widening on Open Highway Curves (Two-Lane Highways, One-Way or Two-Way)
Adjustments for Traveled Way Widening Values on Open Highway Curves (Two-Lane Highways, One-Way or Two-Way)
Derivation of Turning Roadway Widths on Curves at Intersections
Derived Pavement Widths for Turning Roadways for Different Design Vehicles
Design Widths of Pavements for Turning Roadways
Range of Usable Shoulder Widths or Equivalent Lateral Clearances Outside of Turning Roadways, Not on Structure
Design Controls for Stopping Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves
Diagram Illustrating Components for Determining Horizontal Sight Distance
Speed-Distance Curves for a Typical Heavy Truck of 120 kg/kW [200 lb/hp] for Deceleration on Upgrades
Speed-Distance Curves for Acceleration of a Typical Heavy Truck of 120 kg/kW [200 lb/hp] on Upgrades and Downgrades
Speed-Distance Curves for a Typical Recreational Vehicle on the Selected Upgrades (40)
Crash Involvement Rate of Trucks for Which Running Speeds Are Reduced Below Average Running Speed of All Traffic (41)
Critical Lengths of Grade for Design, Assumed Typical Heavy Truck of 120 kg/kW [200 lb/hp], Entering Speed = 110 km/h [70 mph]
Critical Lengths of Grade Using an Approach Speed of 90 km/h [55 mph] for Typical Recreational Vehicle (40)
Climbing Lanes on Two-Lane Highways
Climbing Lane on Freeways and Multilane Highways
Passing Lanes Section on Two-Lane Roads
Recommended Lengths of Turnouts Including Taper
Forces Acting on a Vehicle in Motion
Rolling Resistance of Roadway Surfacing Materials
Basic Types of Emergency Escape Ramps
Typical Emergency Escape Ramp
Types of Vertical Curves
Parameters Considered in Determining the Length of a Crest Vertical Curve to Provide Sight Distance
Design Controls for Crest Vertical Curves—Open Road Conditions
Design Controls for Stopping Sight Distance and for Crest and Sag Vertical Curves
Design Controls for Crest Vertical Curves Based on Passing Sight Distance
Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves—Open Road Conditions
Design Controls for Sag Vertical Curves
Sight Distance at Undercrossings
Alignment and Profile Relationships in Roadway Design (48)
Typical Cross Section, Normal Crown
Typical Cross Section, Superelevated
Roadway Sections for Divided Highway (Basic Cross Slope Arrangements)
Normal Traveled-Way Cross Slope
Graded and Usable Shoulders
Typical Highway Curbs
Designation of Roadside Regions
Typical Frontage Road Arrangements
Frontage Roads, Irregular Pattern
One-way Frontage Roads, Entrance and Exit Ramps
Two-way Frontage Roads, Entrance and Exit Ramps
Frontage Road in Business Area With Narrow Outer Separation
Typical Outer Separations
Noise-Abatement Criteria for Various Land Uses
Effects of Depressing the Highway
Effects of Elevating the Highway
Typical Two-lane Tunnel Sections
Diagrammatic Tunnel Sections
Entrance to a Freeway Tunnel
Interior of a 3-lane One-way Tunnel
Typical Pedestrian Overpasses on Major Highways
Mid-block Sidewalk Curb Ramp Details
Sidewalk Curb Ramp at Middle of Radius—Discouraged Where Pedestrian and/or Vehicular Volumes are Moderate to High
Sidewalk Curb Ramp at End of Curb Radius
Sidewalk Curb Ramp at Midblock
Median and Island Openings
Bus Turnouts
Midblock Bus Turnout
Sawtooth Bus Loading Area
Typical Park-and-Ride Facility
Parking Lane Transition at Intersection
Minimum Design Speeds for Local Rural Roads
Design Controls for Stopping Sight Distance and for Crest and Sag Vertical Curves
Design Controls for Crest Vertical Curves Based on Passing Sight Distance
Maximum Grades for Local Rural Roads
Minimum Width of Traveled Way and Shoulders
Minimum Clear Roadway Widths and Design Loadings for New and Reconstructed Bridges
Minimum Structural Capacities and Minimum Roadway Widths for Bridges to Remain in Place
Types of Cul-de-Sacs and Dead-End Streets
Alley Turnarounds
Actual Curb Radius and Effective Radius for Right-Turn Movements at Intersections
Minimum Illumination Levels
Potential Road Network
Design Controls for Stopping Sight Distance and for Crest and Sag Vertical Curves—Recreational Roads
Design Controls for Passing Sight Distance for Crest Vertical Curves— Recreational Roads
Maximum Grades for Recreational Roads
Minimum-Radius Horizontal Curve for Gravel Surface
Turnout Design
Widths of Traveled Way and Shoulders—Recreational Roads
Design Speeds for Resource Recovery and Local Service Roads
Minimum Design Speeds for Rural Collectors
Design Controls for Stopping Sight Distance and for Crest and Sag Vertical Curves
Design Controls for Crest Vertical Curves Based on Passing Sight Distance
Maximum Grades for Rural Collectors
Minimum Width of Traveled Way and Shoulders
Minimum Roadway Widths and Design Loadings for New and Reconstructed Bridges
Structural Capacities and Minimum Roadway Widths for Bridges to Remain in Place
Maximum Grades for Urban Collectors
Minimum Sight Distances for Arterials
Maximum Grades for Rural Arterials
Minimum Width of Traveled Way and Usable Shoulder for Rural Arterials
Climbing Lane on Two-Lane Rural Arterial
Two-Lane Arterial Cross Section With Ultimate Development to a Four-Lane Arterial
Methods of Attaining Superelevation on Divided Arterials
Typical Medians on Divided Arterials
Cross Sectional Arrangements on Divided Arterials
Cross Sectional Arrangements on Divided Arterials
Maximum Grades for Urban Arterials
Continuous Two-Way Left-Turn Lane
Parking Turnouts in Downtown District
Arterial Street in Residential Area
Divided Arterial Street With Parking Lanes
Urban Arterial With Dual Left-Turn Lanes
Divided Arterial Street With Two-Way Frontage Road
Bus Stops at Special Locations Adjacent to Certain Arterials
Exclusive Bus Lane
Maximum Grades for Rural and Urban Freeways
Typical Ground-Level Rural Freeway
Typical Rural Medians
Typical Cross Section for Depressed Freeways
Restricted Cross Sections for Depressed Freeways
Cross Sections with Retaining Walls on Depressed Freeways Without Ramps
Depressed Freeway
Depressed Freeway
Typical Cross Sections for Elevated Freeways on Structures Without Ramps
Typical and Restricted Cross Sections for Elevated Freeways on Structure With Frontage Roads
Typical and Restricted Cross Sections for Elevated Freeways on Embankment
Viaduct Freeway
Two-Level Viaduct Freeway
Typical Cross Sections for Ground-Level Freeways
Restricted Cross Sections for Ground-Level Freeways
Profile Control—Rolling Terrain Combination-Type Freeway
Profile Control—Flat Terrain Combination-Type Freeway
Cross-Section Control—Combination-Type Freeway
Combination-Type Freeway
Four-Level Cantilevered Freeway
Typical Cross Sections for Reverse-Flow Operation
Typical Reverse Roadway Terminals
Reverse-Flow Freeway
Typical Dual-Divided Freeway
Dual-Divided Freeway With a 4 Roadway Arrangement
Bus Roadway Located Between a Freeway and a Parallel Frontage Road
Bus Stops at Freeway Level
Bus Stops at Freeway-Level Diamond Interchange
Freeway-Level Bus Stop at Cloverleaf Interchange
Bus Stops at Street Level on Diamond Interchange
Joint Freeway-Transit Right-of-Way
Typical Sections With Rail Transit in Freeway Median
Example of Transit Station Layout
Depressed Freeway With Rail Rapid Transit in the Median
Physical and Functional Intersection Area
Elements of the Functional Area of an Intersection
Channelized High-Type “T” Intersections
Three-Leg Rural Intersection, Channelized “T”
“T” Intersections
Channelized “T” Intersections
“T” Intersections
Channelized “T” Intersections
Unchannelized Four-Leg Intersections, Plain and Flared
Channelized Four-Leg Intersections
Channelized Four-Leg Intersections
Four-Leg Intersections (Channelized High-type)
Four-Leg Intersections (Channelized High-type)
Realigning Multi-Leg Intersections
Geometric Elements of a Single-Lane Modern Roundabout
Typical Modern Roundabout
Roundabout with Entry Flaring in Two Quadrants
Realignment Variations at Intersections
Edge-of-Traveled-Way Designs for Turns at Intersections
Edge of Traveled Way for Turns at Intersections
Minimum Traveled Way (Passenger Vehicles)
Minimum Traveled Way Designs (Single-Unit Trucks and City Transit Buses)
Minimum Edge-of-Traveled-Way Designs (WB [WB] Design Vehicle Path)
Minimum Edge-of-Traveled-Way Designs (WB [WB]) Design Vehicle Path)
Minimum Edge-of-Traveled-Way Designs (WB [WB]) Design Vehicle Path)
Minimum Edge-of-Traveled-Way Designs (WB [WB]) Design Vehicle Path)
Minimum Edge-of-Traveled-Way Designs (WBT [WBT] Design Vehicle Path)
Minimum Edge-of-Traveled-Way Designs (WBD [WB9D] Design Vehicle Path)
Effect of Curbed Radii on Right Turning Paths of Various Design Vehicles
Effect of Curbed Radii on Right Turning Paths of Various Design Vehicles
Cross Street Width Occupied by Turning Vehicle for Various Angles of Intersection and Curb Radii
Effect of Curbed Radii and Parking on Right Turning Paths
Variations in Length of Crosswalk With Different Curb Radii and Width of Borders
Corner Setbacks with Different Curb Radii and Width of Borders
General Types and Shapes of Islands and Medians
Alignment for Addition of Divisional Islands at Intersections
Details of Corner Island Designs for Turning Roadways (Urban Location)
Details of Corner Island Designs for Turning Roadways (Rural Cross Section on Approach)
Nose Ramping at Approach End of Median or Corner Island
Details of Divisional Island Design
Minimum Turning Roadway Designs With Corner Islands at Urban Locations
Typical Designs for Turning Roadways
Use of Simple and Compound Curves at Free Flow Turning Roadways
Effective Maximum Relative Gradients
Development of Superelevation at Turning Roadway Terminals
Development of Superelevation at Turning Roadway Terminals
Development of Superelevation at Turning Roadway Terminals
Development of Superelevation at Turning Roadway Terminals
Maximum Algebraic Difference in Cross Slope at Turning Roadway Terminals
Intersection Sight Triangles
Length of Sight Triangle Leg—Case A—No Traffic Control
Length of Sight Triangle Leg—Case A—No Traffic Control
Adjustment Factors for Sight Distance Based on Approach Grade
Time Gap for Case B1—Left Turn from Stop
Design Intersection Sight Distance—Case B1—Left Turn From Stop
Intersection Sight Distance—Case B1—Left Turn from Stop
Time Gap for Case B2—Right Turn from Stop and Case B3—Crossing Maneuver
Design Intersection Sight Distance—Case B2—Right Turn from Stop and Case B3—Crossing Maneuver
Intersection Sight Distance—Case B2—Right Turn from Stop and Case B3— Crossing Maneuver
Case C1—Crossing Maneuvers From Yield-Controlled Approaches—Length of Minor Road Leg and Travel Times
Length of Sight Triangle Leg Along Major Road—Case C1—Crossing Maneuver at Yield Controlled Intersections
Length of Sight Triangle Leg Along Major Road for Passenger Cars—Case C1—Crossing Maneuver
Time Gap for Case C2—Left or Right Turn
Design Intersection Sight Distance—Case C2—Left or Right Turn at Yield Controlled Intersections
Intersection Sight Distance—Case C2—Yield Controlled Left or Right Turn
Time Gap for Case F—Left Turns From the Major Road
Intersection Sight Distance—Case F—Left Turn From Major Road
Intersection Sight Distance—Case F—Left Turn From Major Road
Sight Triangles at Skewed Intersections
Stopping Sight Distance for Turning Roadways
Two-Lane Crossroad Designs to Discourage Wrong-Way Entry
Divided Crossroad Designs to Discourage Wrong-Way Entry
General Types of Intersections
General Types of Intersections
Guide for Left-Turn Lanes on Two-Lane Highways (6)
Control Radii at Intersections for 90-Degree Left Turns
Minimum Design of Median Openings (P Design Vehicle, Control Radius of 12 m [40 ft])
Minimum Design of Median Openings (P Design Vehicle, Control Radius of 12 m [40 ft])
Minimum Design of Median Openings (SU Design Vehicle, Control Radius of 15 m [50 ft])
Minimum Design of Median Openings (WB [WB] Design Vehicle, Control Radius of 23 m [75 ft])
Minimum Design of Median Openings (SU Design Vehicle, Control Radius of 15 m [50 ft])
Minimum Design of Median Openings (WB [WB] Design Vehicle, Control Radius of 23 m [75 ft])
Minimum Design of Median Openings (Radius of 30 m [100 ft])
Minimum Design of Median Openings (Effect of Skew)
Design Controls for Minimum Median Openings
Effect of Skew on Minimum Design for Median Openings (Typical Values Based on Control Radius of 15 m [50 ft])
Above Minimum Design of Median Openings (Typical Bullet-Nose Ends)
Jughandle-Type Ramp with Crossroad
At-Grade Loop (Surface Loop) with Crossroad
Special Indirect Left-Turn Designs for Traffic Leaving Highway with Narrow Median
Indirect Left Turn Through a Crossover
Minimum Designs for U-turns
Special Indirect U-Turn with Narrow Medians
Flush or Traversable Median Lane Markings
Taper Design for Auxiliary Lanes (Metric)
4.2 to 5.4 m [14 to 18 ft] Median Width Left-Turn Design (Metric)
Median Left-Turn Design for Median Width in Excess of 5.4 m [18 ft]
Parallel and Tapered Offset Left-Turn Lane
Four-Leg Intersection Providing Simultaneous Left Turns
Intersections with Frontage Roads
Cumulative Frequency Distribution of Impact Lengths
Railroad-Highway Grade Crossing
Case A: Moving Vehicle to Safely Cross or Stop at Railroad Crossing
Required Design Sight Distance for Combination of Highway and Train Vehicle Speeds; 20-m [65-ft] Truck Crossing a Single Set of Tracks at 90°
Case B: Departure of Vehicle From Stopped Position to Cross Single Railroad Track
Interchange Configurations
Factors Influencing Length of Access Control Along an Interchange Crossroad
Typical Grade Separation Structures With Closed Abutments
Typical Grade Separation Structure With Open-End Span
Multilevel Grade Separation Structures
Lateral Clearances for Major Roadway Underpasses
Typical Overpass Structures
Flat Terrain, Distance Required to Effect Grade Separation
Three-Leg Interchanges With Single Structures
Three-Leg Interchanges With Multiple Structures
Three-Leg Interchange (T-Type or Trumpet)
Three-Leg Interchange Semidirectional Design
Directional Three-Leg Interchange of a River Crossing
Trumpet Freeway-to-Freeway Interchange
Four-Leg Interchanges, Ramps in One Quadrant
Diamond Interchanges, Conventional Arrangements
Diamond Interchange Arrangements to Reduce Traffic Conflicts
Diamond Interchanges with Additional Structures
Freeway With a Three-Level Diamond Interchange
Existing Four-Leg Interchange With Diamond Stage Construction
X-Pattern Ramp Arrangement
Underpass Single Point Urban Interchange
An SPUI Underpass in Restricted Right-of-Way
Overpass Layout With a Frontage Road and a Separate U-Turn Movement
Underpass SPUI and Overpass SPUI
Four-Leg Interchange, Full Cloverleaf With Collector-Distributor Roads
Cloverleaf Interchange With Collector-Distributor Roads
Schematic of Partial Cloverleaf Ramp Arrangements, Exit and Entrance Turns
Four-Leg Interchange (Partial or Two-Quadrant Cloverleaf with Ramps Before Main Structure)
Four-Leg Interchange (Partial or Two-Quadrant Cloverleaf with Ramps Beyond Main Structure)
Semidirect Interchanges With Weaving
Semidirect Interchanges With No Weaving
Semidirectional and Directional Interchanges—Multilevel Structures
Directional Interchange, Two Semidirect Connections
Four-Level Directional Interchange
Four-Level Directional Interchange
Semidirectional Interchange With Loops
Offset Interchange via Ramp Highway
Four-Leg Interchange, Diamond With a Semidirect Connection
Four-Leg Interchange, Cloverleaf With a Semidirect Connection
Complex Interchange Arrangement
Freeway with a Three-Level Cloverleaf Interchange
Adaptability of Interchanges on Freeways as Related to Types of Intersecting Facilities
Widening for Divisional Island at Interchanges
Arrangement of Exits Between Successive Interchanges
Interchange Forms to Maintain Route Continuity
Collector-Distributor Road on Major-Minor Roadway Overlap
Schematic of Basic Number of Lanes
Typical Examples of Lane Balance
Coordination of Lane Balance and Basic Number of Lanes
Alternative Methods of Dropping Auxiliary Lanes
Coordination of Lane Balance and Basic Number of Lanes Through Application of Auxiliary Lanes
Auxiliary Lane Dropped at Two-Lane Exit
Interchange Forms with One and Two Exits
General Types of Ramps
Guide Values for Ramp Design Speed as Related to Highway Design Speed
Ramp Shapes
Development of Superelevation at Free-Flow Ramp Terminals
Typical Gore Area Characteristics
Typical Gore Details
Minimum Length of Taper Beyond an Offset Nose
Traveled-Way Narrowing on Entrance Ramps
Gore Area, Single-Lane Exit
Gore Area, Major Fork
Gore Area, Two-Lane Exit
Entrance Terminal
Design Widths for Turning Roadways
Recommended Minimum Ramp Terminal Spacing
Typical Single-Lane Entrance Ramps
Minimum Acceleration Lengths for Entrance Terminals With Flat Grades of Percent or Less
Speed Change Lane Adjustment Factors as a Function of Grade
Exit Ramps—Single Lane
Minimum Deceleration Lengths for Exit Terminals With Flat Grades of Percent or Less
Layout of Taper-Type Terminals on Curves (Metric)
Parallel-Type Ramp Terminals on Curves
Typical Two-Lane Entrance Ramps
Two-Lane Exit Terminals
Major Forks
Branch Connections
Diagram of Freeway Operational Problem and Solution
Major Forks
Branch Connections
Diagram of Freeway Operational Problem and Solution







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