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3DS Max 8 Reference Guide


 









3DS Max 8 Reference Guide

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Index 3DS Max 8 Reference Guide


Introduction
Welcome
What’s New in 3ds Max 8
3dsMax Documentation Set
AboutMAXScript
1 Getting Started with 3ds Max
Getting Started with 3dsMax
ProjectWorkflow
Setting Up Your Scene
Modeling Objects
UsingMaterials
Placing Lights and Cameras
Animating Your Scene
Rendering Your Scene
The 3dsMaxWindow
Special Controls
Managing Files
Importing,Merging, Replacing, and Externally
Referencing Scenes
Using the Asset Browser
Startup Files and Defaults
3dsmax ini File
Backing Up and Archiving Scenes
Crash Recovery System
2 Viewing and Navigating 3D Space
Viewing and Navigating 3D Space
General Viewport Concepts
Home Grid: Views Based on the World
Coordinate Axes
Understanding Views
Setting Viewport Layout
Controlling Viewport Rendering
Controlling Display Performance
Using Standard View Navigation
Zooming, Panning, and Rotating Views
UsingWalkthrough Navigation
Navigating Camera and Light Views
Adaptive Degradation Toggle
Grab Viewport
View-Handling Commands
View-Handling Commands
Undo View Change / Redo View Change
Save Active View
Restore Active View
Viewport Background
Viewport Background Dialog
Select Background Image Dialog
Update Background Image
Reset Background Transform
Show Transform Gizmo
Show Ghosting
Show Key Times
Shade Selected
Show Dependencies
Create Camera From View
Add Default Lights to Scene
Add Default Lights To Scene Dialog
Redraw All Views
Activate AllMaps
Deactivate AllMaps
Update During Spinner Drag
ExpertMode
Controlling Object Display
Controlling Object Display
Display Color Rollout
Hide By Category Rollout
iv Contents
Hide Rollout
Freeze Rollout
Display Properties Rollout
Link Display Rollout
Object Display Culling Utility
3 Selecting Objects
Selecting Objects
Introducing Object Selection
Basics of Selecting Objects
Selecting by Region
Using Select By Name
Using Named Selection Sets
Using Selection Filters
Selecting with Track View
Selecting with Schematic View
Freezing and Unfreezing Objects
Hiding and Unhiding Objects by Selection
Hiding and Unhiding Objects by Category
Isolate Selection
Introduction to Sub-Object Selection
Selection Commands
Selection Commands
Select Object
Select By Name Button
Select Objects Dialog
Selection Floater
Selection Region Flyout
Rectangular Selection Region
Circular Selection Region
Fence Selection Region
Lasso Selection Region
Paint Selection Region
Selection Filter List
Filter Combinations Dialog
Named Selection Sets
Select All
Select None
Select Invert
Select By
Select By Color
Select By Name (EditMenu)
Region
Select RegionWindow
Select Region Crossing
Window/Crossing Selection Toggle
Named Selection Sets Dialog
Edit Named Selections Dialog
Edit Commands
Edit Commands
Undo/Redo
Undo
Redo
Hold
Fetch
Delete
Assemblies and Groups
Using Groups
Using Assemblies
Group Commands
Group Commands
Group
Open Group
Close Group
Ungroup
Explode Group
Detach Group
Attach Group
Assembly Commands
Assembly Commands
Assemble
Create Assembly Dialog
Open Assembly
Close Assembly
Disassemble
Explode Assembly
Detach Assembly
Attach Assembly
Assembly Head Helper Objects
Assembly Head Helper Object
Luminaire Helper Object
4 Object Properties
Object Properties
Object Properties Dialog
Object Properties Dialog
Object Properties Dialog Panels
General Panel (Object Properties Dialog)
Advanced Lighting Panel (Object Properties
Dialog)
mental ray Panel (Object Properties Dialog)
User Defined Panel (Object Properties Dialog)
Rename Objects Tool
Custom Attributes
Parameter Collector
Parameter Collector
Parameter CollectorMenu Bar
Notes Dialog (Parameter Collector)
Contents v
Expression Techniques
Expression Techniques
Trigonometric Functions
Vectors
5 Creating Geometry
Creating Geometry
Basics of Creating and Modifying Objects
Basics of Creating andModifying Objects
Using the Create Panel
Identifying the Basic Building Blocks
Creating an Object
Assigning Colors to Objects
Assigning Colors to Objects
Object Color Dialog
Color Selector Dialog
Color Clipboard Utility
Adjusting Normals and Smoothing
Adjusting Normals and Smoothing
Viewing and Changing Normals
Viewing and Changing Smoothing
Creating Geometric Primitives
Geometric Primitives
Creating Primitives from the Keyboard
Standard Primitives
Standard Primitives
Box Primitive
Cone Primitive
Sphere Primitive
GeoSphere Primitive
Cylinder Primitive
Tube Primitive
Torus Primitive
Pyramid Primitive
Teapot Primitive
Plane Primitive
Extended Primitives
Extended Primitives
Hedra Extended Primitive
Torus Knot Extended Primitive
ChamferBox Extended Primitive
ChamferCyl Extended Primitive
OilTank Extended Primitive
Capsule Extended Primitive
Spindle Extended Primitive
L-Ext Extended Primitive
Gengon Extended Primitive
C-Ext Extended Primitive
RingWave Extended Primitive
Prism Extended Primitive
Hose Extended Primitive
Creating Architectural Objects
AEC Extended Objects
AEC Extended Objects
Working with AEC Design Elements
Foliage
Railing
Wall
EditingWall Objects
Stairs
Stairs
L-Type Stair
Spiral Stair
Straight Stair
U-Type Stair
Doors
Doors
Pivot Door
Sliding Door
BiFold Door
Windows
Windows
AwningWindow
CasementWindow
FixedWindow
PivotedWindow
ProjectedWindow
SlidingWindow
Creating Shapes
Shapes
Shape Check Utility
Splines
Splines and Extended Splines
Line Spline
Rectangle Spline
Circle Spline
Ellipse Spline
Arc Spline
Donut Spline
NGon Spline
Star Spline
Text Spline
Helix Spline
Section Spline
Extended Splines
WRectangle Spline
Channel Spline
Angle Spline
vi Contents
Tee Spline
Wide Flange Spline
Editable Splines
Editable Spline
Editable Spline (Object)
Editable Spline (Vertex)
Editable Spline (Segment)
Editable Spline (Spline)
Creating Compound Objects
Compound Objects
Morph Compound Object
Scatter Compound Object
Conform Compound Object
Connect Compound Object
BlobMesh Compound Object
ShapeMerge Compound Object
Boolean Compound Object
Boolean Compound Object
Material Attach Options Dialog
Terrain Compound Object
Loft Compound Object
Loft Compound Object
CreationMethod Rollout
Surface Parameters Rollout
Path Parameters Rollout
Skin Parameters Rollout
Deformations
Deform Scale
Deform Twist
Deform Teeter
Deform Bevel
Deform Fit
Deformation Dialog
Path Commands
Shape Commands
Compare Dialog
Mesher Compound Object
Creating Dynamics Objects
Dynamics Objects
Damper Dynamics Object
Spring Dynamics Object
Creating Systems
Systems
Bones System
Bones System
Using Objects as Bones
Bone Tools
Bone Tools Rollouts
Bone Editing Tools Rollout
Fin Adjustment Tools Rollout
Object Properties Rollout (Bone Tools)
Ring Array System
Sunlight and Daylight Systems
Sunlight and Daylight Systems
Geographic Location Dialog
6 Transforms: Moving, Rotating, and
Scaling Objects
Moving, Rotating, and Scaling Objects
Axis Tripod andWorld Axis
Using Transforms
Using Transforms
Applying Transforms
Moving and Rotating Objects
Scaling Objects
Using Transform Gizmos
Transform Type-In
Animating Transforms
TransformManagers
Specifying a Reference Coordinate System
Choosing a Transform Center
Using the Axis Constraints
Reset Transform Utility
Transform Commands
Transform Commands
Select andMove
Select and Rotate
Select and Scale Flyout
Select and Uniform Scale
Select and Non-Uniform Scale
Select and Squash
Transform Coordinates and Coordinate
Center
Transform Coordinates and Coordinate Center
Reference Coordinate System
Use Center Flyout
Use Pivot Point Center
Use Selection Center
Use Transform Coordinate Center
Transform Constraints
Transform Constraints
Restrict To X
Restrict To Y
Restrict To Z
Restrict To Plane Flyout
Restrict To XY Plane
Restrict To YZ Plane
Restrict To ZX Plane
Contents vii
Transform Tools
Transform Tools
Array Flyout
Mirror Selected Objects
Mirror Dialog
Array
Array Dialog
Snapshot
Snapshot Dialog
Spacing Tool
Clone and Align Tool
Align Flyout
Align
Align Dialog
Quick Align
Normal Align
Normal Align Dialog
Place Highlight
Align Camera
Align to View
Align to View Dialog
7 Creating Copies and Arrays
Creating Copies and Arrays
Overview of Copies, Instances, and References
Cloning Objects
Techniques for Cloning Objects
Clone
Clone Options Dialog
Using SHIFT+Clone
Cloning with SHIFT+Move
Cloning with SHIFT+Rotate
Cloning with SHIFT+Scale
Animating SHIFT+Rotate and SHIFT+Scale
Cloning Objects Over Time with Snapshot
Arraying Objects
Arraying Objects
Using the Array Dialog
Creating Linear Arrays
Creating Circular and Spiral Arrays
Mirroring Objects
Using the Spacing Tool
8 Modifiers
UsingModifiers
Transforms,Modifiers, and Object Data Flow
List of AvailableModifiers
Basics of Using Modifiers
Using theModify Panel
Using theModifier Stack
Editing the Stack
EditModifiers and Editable Objects
Modifying at the Sub-Object Level
Using the Stack at the Sub-Object Level
ModifyingMultiple Objects
How InstancedModifiersWork
World-Space Modifiers
World-SpaceModifiers (WSMs)
CameraMapModifier (World Space)
DisplaceMeshModifier (World Space)
Displace NURBSModifier (World Space)
Hair and Fur Modifier (WSM)
Hair Overview
Hair and FurModifier
Style Dialog (Hair)
LS ColorsModifier (World Space)
MapScalerModifier (World Space)
PatchDeformModifier (World Space)
PathDeformModifier (World Space)
Point CacheModifier (World Space)
SubdivideModifier (World Space)
SurfaceMapperModifier (World Space)
SurfDeformModifier (World Space)
Object-Space Modifiers
Object-SpaceModifiers
Affect RegionModifier
Attribute HolderModifier
BendModifier
BevelModifier
Bevel ProfileModifier
CameraMapModifier (Object Space)
Cap HolesModifier
Cloth and Garment Maker Modifiers
Cloth Introduction
Cloth Overview
ClothModifier
Object Properties Dialog (Cloth)
GarmentMakerModifier
Troubleshooting and Error Codes in Garment
Maker
CrossSectionModifier
DeleteMeshModifier
Delete PatchModifier
Delete SplineModifier
Disp ApproxModifier
DisplaceModifier
EditMeshModifier
Edit NormalsModifier
viii Contents
Edit PatchModifier
Edit Poly Modifier
Edit PolyModifier
Edit Poly (Object)
Edit Poly (Vertex)
Edit Poly (Edge)
Edit Poly (Border)
Edit Poly (Polygon/Element)
Align Geometry Dialog
Detach Dialog
Edit SplineModifier
ExtrudeModifier
Face ExtrudeModifier
FFD (Free-Form Deformation)Modifiers
FFD (Box/Cylinder)Modifiers
FFD (Free-Form Deformation) SelectModifier
Fillet/ChamferModifier
Flex Modifier
FlexModifier
Spring Option Dialog
HSDS Modifier
HSDSModifier
Adaptive Subdivision Dialog
LatheModifier
LatticeModifier
Linked XFormModifier
LSMeshModifier
MapScalerModifier (Object Space)
MaterialModifier
MaterialByElementModifier
MeltModifier
Mesh SelectModifier
MeshSmoothModifier
MirrorModifier
MorpherModifier
MultiResModifier
NoiseModifier
NormalModifier
Normalize SplineModifier
NSurf SelModifier
OptimizeModifier
Patch SelectModifier
PatchDeformModifier
PathDeformModifier
Point CacheModifier
Poly SelectModifier
PreserveModifier
Projection Modifier
ProjectionModifier
Selection Rollout (ProjectionModifier)
Reference Geometry Rollout (Projection
Modifier)
Cage Rollout (ProjectionModifier)
Selection Check Rollout (ProjectionModifier)
Projection Rollout (ProjectionModifier)
Project Mapping Rollout (ProjectionModifier)
Projection HolderModifier
PushModifier
RelaxModifier
Renderable SplineModifier
RippleModifier
Select By ChannelModifier
ShellModifier
SkewModifier
Skin Modifier
SkinModifier
Load Envelopes Dialog (SkinModifier)
Weight Tool Dialog
Weight Table (SkinModifier)
Painter Options Dialog
SkinMorphModifier
SkinWrapModifier
SkinWrap PatchModifier
SliceModifier
SmoothModifier
SpherifyModifier
Spline IK ControlModifier
Spline SelectModifier
SqueezeModifier
STL CheckModifier
StretchModifier
SubdivideModifier
SubstituteModifier
SurfaceModifier
SurfDeformModifier
Sweep Modifier
SweepModifier
Pick Shape Dialog
Extract Shape Dialog
Merge File (SweepModifier)
SymmetryModifier
TaperModifier
TessellateModifier
Trim/ExtendModifier
TurboSmoothModifier
Turn ToMeshModifier
Turn To PatchModifier
Turn To PolyModifier
Contents ix
TwistModifier
Unwrap UVW Modifier
Unwrap UVWModifier
Edit UVWs Dialog
Edit UVWs DialogMenu Bar
UVW Editor Dialogs
FlattenMapping Dialog
NormalMapping Dialog
Pack UVs Dialog
PeltMap Parameters Dialog
Relax Tool Dialog
Render UVs Dialog
Sketch Tool Dialog
Stitch Tool Dialog
UnfoldMapping Dialog
Unwrap Options Dialog
UVWMapModifier
UVWMapping AddModifier
UVWMapping ClearModifier
UVWMapping PasteModifier
UVW XFormModifier
VertexWeldModifier
VertexPaint Modifier
VertexPaintModifier
VertexPaint Paintbox
Adjust Color Dialog (VertexPaintModifier)
Color Palette (VertexPaintModifier)
Volume SelectModifier
WaveModifier
XFormModifier
9 Surface Modeling
SurfaceModeling
Subdivision Surfaces
Soft Selection Rollout
Collapse Utility
Editable Patches
Editable Patch Surface
Editable Patch (Object)
Editable Patch (Vertex)
Editable Patch (Handle)
Editable Patch (Edge)
Editable Patch (Patch)
Editable Patch (Element)
Patch Grids
Patch Grids
Quad Patch
Tri Patch
Meshes
EditableMesh Surface
Working withMesh Sub-Objects
EditableMesh (Object)
EditableMesh (Vertex)
EditableMesh (Edge)
EditableMesh (Face/Polygon/Element)
Attach Options Dialog
Cut and Slice
Polymeshes
Editable Poly Surface
Editable Poly (Object)
Editable Poly (Vertex)
Editable Poly (Edge)
Editable Poly (Border)
Editable Poly (Polygon/Element)
Paint Deformation Rollout
Editable Poly Settings Dialogs
Bevel Polygons Dialog
Bridge Borders/Polygons Dialog
Bridge Edges Dialog
Chamfer Vertices/Edges/Borders Dialog
Connect Edges Dialog
Extrude Polygons Along Spline Dialog
Extrude Polygons Dialog
Extrude Vertices/Edges Dialog
Hinge Polygons From Edge Dialog
Inset Polygons Dialog
MeshSmooth Selection Dialog
PreserveMap Channels Dialog
Relax Dialog
Tessellate Selection Dialog
Weld Vertices/Edges Dialog
NURBS
Introduction to NURBSModeling
Working with NURBS Models
NURBSModels: Objects and Sub-Objects
Creating NURBSModels
Working with NURBSModels
Surface Trimming
Modifying NURBS Models and Creating
Sub-Objects
QuadMenu for NURBS Objects
Using the NURBS Toolbox to Create
Sub-Objects
Sub-Object Selection
CV Sub-Objects and Point Sub-Objects
Dependent Sub-Objects
Rigid Surfaces
NURBS andModifiers
x Contents
NURBS and Animation
NURBS Concepts
NURBS Tips and Techniques
NURBS Tips and Techniques
How toMake Objects with NURBSModeling
How to Fix NURBS Objects
How to Improve Performance
Animation, Textures, and Rendering
NURBS Surface Primitives
NURBS Surfaces
Point Surface
CV Surface
NURBS Curve Primitives
NURBS Curves
Point Curve
CV Curve
Creating NURBS Curve and Surface Objects
Creating Independent Surfaces from NURBS
Curve Objects
Creating NURBS Curves from Splines
Creating NURBS Surfaces from Geometric
Primitives
Nonrelational NURBS Surfaces
Display Controls for NURBSModels
Display Line Parameters for NURBS Surfaces
Creating and Editing NURBS Sub-Objects
Attaching and Importing 3dsMax Objects
Common Sub-Object Controls
Editing Point Sub-Objects
Editing Curve CV Sub-Objects
Editing Surface CV Sub-Objects
Editing Curve Sub-Objects
Editing Surface Sub-Objects
Soft Selection Rollout (NURBS)
Material Properties Rollout
Creating Curve Sub-Objects
Creating Curve Sub-Objects
CV Curve Sub-Object
Point Curve Sub-Object
Curve Fit
Transform Curve
Blend Curve
Offset Curve
Mirror Curve
Chamfer Curve
Fillet Curve
Surface-Surface Intersection Curve
Surface Offset Curve
U and V Iso Curves
Normal Projected Curve
Vector Projected Curve
CV Curve on Surface
Point Curve on Surface
Surface Edge Curve
Creating Surface Sub-Objects
Creating Surface Sub-Objects
CV Surface Sub-Object
Point Surface Sub-Object
Transform Surface
Blend Surface
Offset Surface
Mirror Surface
Extrude Surface
Lathe Surface
Ruled Surface
Cap Surface
U Loft Surface
UV Loft Surface
1-Rail Sweep Surface
2-Rail Sweep Surface
Multisided Blend Surface
Multicurve Trimmed Surface
Fillet Surface
Creating and Editing Point Sub-Objects
Creating and Editing Point Sub-Objects
Point (NURBS)
Offset Point
Curve Point
Surface Point
Curve-Curve Intersection Point
Surface-Curve Intersection Point
NURBS Editing Dialogs
Convert Curve Dialog
Convert Curve on Surface Dialog
Convert Surface Dialog
CV Curve: Close Curve Dialog
Detach Dialog (NURBS)
Edit Curve on Surface Dialog
Edit Texture Surface Dialog
Join Curves Dialog
Join Surfaces Dialog
Make Loft Dialog
Make Point Dialog
Make Point Curve Dialog
Point Curve: Close Curve Dialog
Rebuild CV Curve Dialog
Rebuild CV Surface Dialog
Rebuild Texture Surface Dialog
Contents xi
Reparameterize Dialog
Sub-Object Clone Options Dialog
Select ByMaterial ID Dialog
Curve and Surface Approximation
Curve Approximation
Surface Approximation
Advanced Surface Approximation Dialog
Surface Approximation Utility
Surface Approximation Utility
Surface Approximation Rollout
Surface Display Rollout
Tools for Low-Polygon Modeling
Tools for Low-PolygonModeling
Polygon Counter Utility
Polygon Counter Dialog
Level of Detail Utility
Index







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