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3DS Max 2009 Reference Guide


3DS Max 2009 Reference Guide

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Index 3DS Max 2009 Reference Guide

Whatís New in 3dsMax 9 Extension 1
3dsMax Documentation Set
1 Getting Started with 3ds Max
Getting Started with 3dsMax
Setting Up Your Scene
Modeling Objects
Placing Lights and Cameras
Animating Your Scene
Rendering Your Scene
The 3dsMaxWindow
Special Controls
Managing Files
Importing,Merging, Replacing, and Externally
Referencing Scenes
Using the Asset Browser
Startup Files and Defaults
Backing Up and Archiving Scenes
Crash Recovery System
2 Viewing and Navigating 3D Space
Viewing and Navigating 3D Space
General Viewport Concepts
Home Grid: Views Based on the World
Coordinate Axes
Understanding Views
Setting Viewport Layout
Controlling Viewport Rendering
Controlling Display Performance
Using Standard View Navigation
Zooming, Panning, and Rotating Views
UsingWalkthrough Navigation
Navigating Camera and Light Views
Adaptive Degradation Toggle
Grab Viewport
View-Handling Commands
View-Handling Commands
Undo View Change / Redo View Change
Save Active View
Restore Active View
Viewport Background Dialog
Select Background Image Dialog
Update Background Image
Reset Background Transform
Show Transform Gizmo
Show Ghosting
Show Key Times
Shade Selected
Show Dependencies
Create Camera From View
Add Default Lights to Scene
Redraw All Views
Activate AllMaps
Deactivate AllMaps
Update During Spinner Drag
Controlling Object Display
Controlling Object Display
Display Color Rollout
Hide By Category Rollout
Hide Rollout
Freeze Rollout
Display Properties Rollout
iv Contents
Link Display Rollout
Object Display Culling Utility
3 Selecting Objects
Selecting Objects
Introducing Object Selection
Basics of Selecting Objects
Selecting by Region
Using Select By Name
Using Named Selection Sets
Using Selection Filters
Selecting with Track View
Selecting with Schematic View
Freezing and Unfreezing Objects
Hiding and Unhiding Objects by Selection
Hiding and Unhiding Objects by Category
Isolate Selection
Introduction to Sub-Object Selection
Selection Commands
Selection Commands
Select Object
Select By Name
Selection Floater
Selection Region Flyout
Selection Filter List
Filter Combinations Dialog
Named Selections
Named Selection Sets
Named Selection Sets Dialog
Edit Named Selections Dialog
Select All
Select None
Select Invert
Select By
Select By Color
Select By Name (EditMenu)
Select Similar
Region Selection
Rectangular Selection Region
Circular Selection Region
Fence Selection Region
Lasso Selection Region
Paint Selection Region
Select RegionWindow
Select Region Crossing
Window/Crossing Selection Toggle
Edit Commands
Edit Commands
Groups and Assemblies
Groups and Assemblies
Using Groups
Using Assemblies
Character Assembly
Group Commands
Group Commands
Open Group
Close Group
Explode Group
Detach Group
Attach Group
Assembly Commands
Assembly Commands
Open Assembly
Close Assembly
Explode Assembly
Detach Assembly
Attach Assembly
Assembly Head Helper Objects
Assembly Head Helper Object
Luminaire Helper Object
Character Assembly Commands
Character Assembly Commands
Create Character
Destroy Character
Lock/Unlock Character
Insert Character
Save Character
Skin Pose Commands
4 Object Properties
Object Properties
Object Properties Dialog Panels
General Panel (Object Properties Dialog)
Advanced Lighting Panel (Object Properties
mental ray Panel (Object Properties Dialog)
User Defined Panel (Object Properties Dialog)
Rename Objects Tool
Custom Attributes
Parameter Collector
Contents v
Parameter Collector
Parameter CollectorMenu Bar
Notes Dialog (Parameter Collector)
Expression Techniques
Expression Techniques
Trigonometric Functions
5 Creating Geometry
Creating Geometry
Basics of Creating and Modifying Objects
Basics of Creating andModifying Objects
Using the Create Panel
Identifying the Basic Building Blocks
Creating an Object
Assigning Colors to Objects
Assigning Colors to Objects
Object Color Dialog
Color Selector Dialog
Color Clipboard Utility
Adjusting Normals and Smoothing
Adjusting Normals and Smoothing
Viewing and Changing Normals
Viewing and Changing Smoothing
Creating Geometric Primitives
Geometric Primitives
Creating Primitives from the Keyboard
Standard Primitives
Standard Primitives
Box Primitive
Cone Primitive
Sphere Primitive
GeoSphere Primitive
Cylinder Primitive
Tube Primitive
Torus Primitive
Pyramid Primitive
Teapot Primitive
Plane Primitive
Extended Primitives
Extended Primitives
Hedra Extended Primitive
Torus Knot Extended Primitive
ChamferBox Extended Primitive
ChamferCyl Extended Primitive
OilTank Extended Primitive
Capsule Extended Primitive
Spindle Extended Primitive
L-Ext Extended Primitive
Gengon Extended Primitive
C-Ext Extended Primitive
RingWave Extended Primitive
Prism Extended Primitive
Hose Extended Primitive
Architectural Objects
Architectural Objects
AEC Extended Objects
AEC Extended Objects
Working with AEC Design Elements
EditingWall Objects
L-Type Stair
Spiral Stair
Straight Stair
U-Type Stair
Pivot Door
Sliding Door
BiFold Door
Shape Check Utility
Splines and Extended Splines
Line Spline
Rectangle Spline
Circle Spline
Ellipse Spline
Arc Spline
Donut Spline
NGon Spline
Star Spline
Text Spline
Helix Spline
Section Spline
vi Contents
Extended Splines
WRectangle Spline
Channel Spline
Angle Spline
Tee Spline
Wide Flange Spline
Editable Spline
Editable Spline
Editable Spline (Object)
Editable Spline (Vertex)
Editable Spline (Segment)
Editable Spline (Spline)
Compound Objects
Compound Objects
Morph Compound Object
Scatter Compound Object
Conform Compound Object
Connect Compound Object
BlobMesh Compound Object
ShapeMerge Compound Object
Boolean Compound Object
Boolean Compound Object
Material Attach Options Dialog
Terrain Compound Object
Loft Compound Object
Loft Compound Object
CreationMethod Rollout
Surface Parameters Rollout
Path Parameters Rollout
Skin Parameters Rollout
Deform Scale
Deform Twist
Deform Teeter
Deform Bevel
Deform Fit
Deformation Dialog
Path Commands
Shape Commands
Compare Dialog
Mesher Compound Object
ProBoolean/ProCutter Compound Objects
ProBoolean/ProCutter Compound Objects
ProBoolean Compound Object
ProCutter Compound Object
QuadMeshing and Smoothing
Creating Dynamics Objects
Dynamics Objects
Damper Dynamics Object
Spring Dynamics Object
Creating Systems
Bones System
Bones System
Using Objects as Bones
Bone Tools
Bone Tools Rollouts
Bone Editing Tools Rollout
Fin Adjustment Tools Rollout
Object Properties Rollout (Bone Tools)
Ring Array System
Sunlight and Daylight Systems
Sunlight and Daylight Systems
Geographic Location Dialog
6 Transforms: Moving, Rotating, and
Scaling Objects
Moving, Rotating, and Scaling Objects
Axis Tripod andWorld Axis
Using Transforms
Using Transforms
Using Transform Gizmos
Transform Type-In
Animating Transforms
Specifying a Reference Coordinate System
Choosing a Transform Center
Using the Axis Constraints
Reset Transform Utility
Transform Commands
Transform Commands
Select andMove
Select and Rotate
Select and Scale
Select and Uniform Scale
Select and Non-Uniform Scale
Select and Squash
Transform Coordinates and Coordinate
Transform Coordinates and Coordinate Center
Reference Coordinate System
Use Center Flyout
Use Pivot Point Center
Use Selection Center
Use Transform Coordinate Center
Transform Tools
Transform Tools
Array Flyout
Contents vii
Mirror Selected Objects
Spacing Tool
Clone and Align Tool
Align Flyout
Quick Align
Normal Align
Place Highlight
Align Camera
Align to View
7 Creating Copies and Arrays
Creating Copies and Arrays
Overview of Copies, Instances, and References
Cloning Objects
Techniques for Cloning Objects
Clone Options Dialog
Using Shift +Clone
Cloning with Shift +Move
Cloning with Shift +Rotate
Cloning with Shift +Scale
Animating Shift +Rotate and Shift +Scale
Cloning Objects Over Time with Snapshot
Arraying Objects
Arraying Objects
Using the Array Dialog
Creating Linear Arrays
Creating Circular and Spiral Arrays
Mirroring Objects
Using the Spacing Tool
8 Modifiers
Transforms,Modifiers, and Object Data Flow
List of AvailableModifiers
Using Modifiers
Using theModify Panel
Using theModifier Stack
Editing the Stack
EditModifiers and Editable Objects
Modifying at the Sub-Object Level
Using the Stack at the Sub-Object Level
ModifyingMultiple Objects
How InstancedModifiersWork
World-Space Modifiers
World-SpaceModifiers (WSMs)
CameraMapModifier (World Space)
DisplaceMeshModifier (World Space)
Displace NURBSModifier (World Space)
Hair and Fur Modifier (WSM)
Hair And FurModifier
Selection Rollout (Hair and Fur)
Tools Rollout (Hair and Fur)
Styling Rollout (Hair and Fur)
QuadMenu for Hair Styling
General Parameters Rollout (Hair and Fur)
Material Parameters Rollout (Hair and Fur)
mr Parameters Rollout (Hair and Fur)
Frizz Parameters Rollout (Hair and Fur)
Kink Parameters Rollout (Hair and Fur)
Multi Strand Parameters Rollout (Hair and Fur)
Dynamics Rollout (Hair and Fur)
Display Rollout (Hair and Fur)
LS ColorsModifier (World Space)
MapScalerModifier (World Space)
PatchDeformModifier (World Space)
PathDeformModifier (World Space)
Point CacheModifier (World Space)
SubdivideModifier (World Space)
SurfaceMapperModifier (World Space)
SurfDeformModifier (World Space)
Object-Space Modifiers
Affect RegionModifier
Attribute HolderModifier
Bevel ProfileModifier
CameraMapModifier (Object Space)
Cap HolesModifier
Cloth and Garment Maker Modifiers
Cloth and GarmentMakerModifiers
Cloth Overview
Object Properties Dialog (Cloth)
Troubleshooting and Error Codes in Garment
Delete PatchModifier
Delete SplineModifier
Disp ApproxModifier
viii Contents
Edit NormalsModifier
Edit PatchModifier
Edit Poly Modifier
Edit PolyModifier
Selection Rollout (Edit PolyModifier)
Edit Poly (Object)
Edit Poly (Vertex)
Edit Poly (Edge)
Edit Poly (Border)
Edit Poly (Polygon/Element)
Edit Geometry Rollout (Edit PolyModifier)
Align Geometry Dialog
Detach Dialog
Edit SplineModifier
Face ExtrudeModifier
FFD (Free-Form Deformation)Modifiers
FFD (Box/Cylinder)Modifiers
FFD (Free-Form Deformation) SelectModifier
Flex Modifier
Spring Option Dialog
HSDS Modifier
Adaptive Subdivision Dialog
Linked XFormModifier
MapScalerModifier (Object Space)
Mesh SelectModifier
Normalize SplineModifier
NSurf SelModifier
Patch SelectModifier
Point CacheModifier
Poly SelectModifier
Projection Modifier
Selection Rollout (ProjectionModifier)
Reference Geometry Rollout (Projection
Cage Rollout (ProjectionModifier)
Selection Check Rollout (ProjectionModifier)
Projection Rollout (ProjectionModifier)
Project Mapping Rollout (ProjectionModifier)
Projection HolderModifier
Renderable SplineModifier
Select By ChannelModifier
Skin Modifier
Load Envelopes Dialog (SkinModifier)
Weight Tool Dialog
Weight Table (SkinModifier)
SkinWrap PatchModifier
Spline IK ControlModifier
Spline SelectModifier
STL CheckModifier
Sweep Modifier
Pick Shape Dialog
Extract Shape Dialog
Merge File (SweepModifier)
Contents ix
Turn ToMeshModifier
Turn To PatchModifier
Turn To PolyModifier
Unwrap UVW Modifier
Unwrap UVWModifier
Edit UVWs Dialog
Edit UVWs DialogMenu Bar
Unwrap UVWShortcuts
UVW Editor Dialogs
FlattenMapping Dialog
NormalMapping Dialog
Pack UVs Dialog
PeltMap Parameters Dialog
Relax Tool Dialog
Render UVs Dialog
Sketch Tool Dialog
Stitch Tool Dialog
UnfoldMapping Dialog
Unwrap Options Dialog
UVWMapping AddModifier
UVWMapping ClearModifier
UVWMapping PasteModifier
UVW XFormModifier
VertexPaint Modifier
VertexPaint Paintbox
Adjust Color Dialog (VertexPaintModifier)
Color Palette (VertexPaintModifier)
Volume SelectModifier
Painter Options Dialog
9 Surface Modeling
Subdivision Surfaces
Soft Selection Rollout
Collapse Utility
Editable Patches
Editable Patch Surface
Selection Rollout (Editable Patch)
Editable Patch (Object)
Editable Patch (Vertex)
Editable Patch (Handle)
Editable Patch (Edge)
Editable Patch (Patch)
Editable Patch (Element)
Geometry Rollout (Patch)
Patch Grids
Patch Grids
Quad Patch
Tri Patch
EditableMesh Surface
Working withMesh Sub-Objects
Selection Rollout (EditableMesh)
EditableMesh (Object)
EditableMesh (Vertex)
EditableMesh (Edge)
EditableMesh (Face/Polygon/Element)
Edit Geometry Rollout (Mesh)
Attach Options Dialog
Cut and Slice
Editable Poly Surface
Selection Rollout (Polymesh)
Editable Poly (Object)
Editable Poly (Vertex)
Editable Poly (Edge)
Editable Poly (Border)
Editable Poly (Polygon/Element)
Edit Geometry Rollout (Polymesh)
Subdivision Surface Rollout (Polymesh)
Subdivision Displacement Rollout (Polymesh)
Paint Deformation Rollout
Editable Poly Settings Dialogs
Bevel Polygons Dialog
Bridge Borders/Polygons Dialog
Bridge Edges Dialog
Chamfer Vertices/Edges/Borders Dialog
Connect Edges Dialog
Extrude Polygons Along Spline Dialog
Extrude Polygons Dialog
Extrude Vertices/Edges Dialog
Hinge Polygons From Edge Dialog
Inset Polygons Dialog
MeshSmooth Selection Dialog
PreserveMap Channels Dialog
Relax Dialog
Tessellate Selection Dialog
Weld Vertices/Edges Dialog
Working with NURBS Models
NURBSModels: Objects and Sub-Objects
x Contents
Creating NURBSModels
Working with NURBSModels
Surface Trimming
Modifying NURBS Models and Creating
QuadMenu for NURBS Objects
Using the NURBS Toolbox to Create
Sub-Object Selection
CV Sub-Objects and Point Sub-Objects
Dependent Sub-Objects
Rigid Surfaces
NURBS andModifiers
NURBS and Animation
NURBS Concepts
NURBS Tips and Techniques
NURBS Tips and Techniques
How toMake Objects with NURBSModeling
How to Fix NURBS Objects
How to Improve Performance
Animation, Textures, and Rendering
NURBS Surface Primitives
NURBS Surfaces
Point Surface
CV Surface
NURBS Curve Primitives
NURBS Curves
Point Curve
CV Curve
Creating NURBS Curve and Surface Objects
Creating Independent Surfaces from NURBS
Curve Objects
Creating NURBS Curves from Splines
Creating NURBS Surfaces from Geometric
Nonrelational NURBS Surfaces
Display Controls for NURBSModels
Display Line Parameters for NURBS Surfaces
Creating and Editing NURBS Sub-Objects
Attaching and Importing 3dsMax Objects
Common Sub-Object Controls
Editing Point Sub-Objects
Editing Curve CV Sub-Objects
Editing Surface CV Sub-Objects
Editing Curve Sub-Objects
Editing Surface Sub-Objects
Soft Selection Rollout (NURBS)
Material Properties Rollout
Creating Curve Sub-Objects
Creating Curve Sub-Objects
CV Curve Sub-Object
Point Curve Sub-Object
Curve Fit
Transform Curve
Blend Curve
Offset Curve
Mirror Curve
Chamfer Curve
Fillet Curve
Surface-Surface Intersection Curve
Surface Offset Curve
U and V Iso Curves
Normal Projected Curve
Vector Projected Curve
CV Curve on Surface
Point Curve on Surface
Surface Edge Curve
Creating Surface Sub-Objects
Creating Surface Sub-Objects
CV Surface Sub-Object
Point Surface Sub-Object
Transform Surface
Blend Surface
Offset Surface
Mirror Surface
Extrude Surface
Lathe Surface
Ruled Surface
Cap Surface
U Loft Surface
UV Loft Surface
1-Rail Sweep Surface
2-Rail Sweep Surface
Multisided Blend Surface
Multicurve Trimmed Surface
Fillet Surface
Creating and Editing Point Sub-Objects
Creating and Editing Point Sub-Objects
Point (NURBS)
Offset Point
Curve Point
Surface Point
Curve-Curve Intersection Point
Surface-Curve Intersection Point
NURBS Editing Dialogs
Convert Curve Dialog
Convert Curve on Surface Dialog
Convert Surface Dialog
Contents xi
CV Curve: Close Curve Dialog
Detach Dialog (NURBS)
Edit Curve on Surface Dialog
Edit Texture Surface Dialog
Join Curves Dialog
Join Surfaces Dialog
Make Loft Dialog
Make Point Dialog
Make Point Curve Dialog
Point Curve: Close Curve Dialog
Rebuild CV Curve Dialog
Rebuild CV Surface Dialog
Rebuild Texture Surface Dialog
Reparameterize Dialog
Sub-Object Clone Options Dialog
Select ByMaterial ID Dialog
Curve and Surface Approximation
Curve Approximation
Surface Approximation
Advanced Surface Approximation Dialog
Surface Approximation Utility
Surface Approximation Utility
Surface Approximation Rollout
Surface Display Rollout
Tools for Low-Polygon Modeling
Tools for Low-PolygonModeling
Show Statistics
Level of Detail Utility
10 Precision and Drawing Aids
Precision and Drawing Aids
Tools for Precision
Using Units
Using Grids
Using the Home Grid
Using Grid Objects
Viewing Grid Objects
Aligning Objects
Aligning Normals
Setting Standard Snaps
Setting Snap Options
Measuring Distances
Measure Distance Tool
Select AndManipulate
Standard Helper Objects
Standard Helper Objects
Dummy Helper
Expose Transform Helper
Grid Helper
Point Helper
Tape Helper
Protractor Helper
Compass Helper
Manipulator Helper Objects
Manipulator Helper Objects
Cone AngleManipulator
Plane AngleManipulator
Grid Commands
Grid Commands
Show Home Grid
Activate Home Grid
Activate Grid Object
Align Grid to View
Snap Commands
Snap Commands
2D Snap, 2
Angle Snap Toggle
Percent Snap Toggle
Spinner Snap Toggle
Ortho SnappingMode
Polar SnappingMode
Grid and Snap Settings
Grid and Snap Settings
Snap Settings
Snap Override
Snap Options
Home Grid Settings
User Grids Settings
Drawing Aid Utilities
Drawing Aid Utilities
Measure Utility
RescaleWorld Units Utility
11 Space Warps and Particle Systems
SpaceWarps and Particle Systems
Space Warps
SpaceWarp Objects
Bind to SpaceWarp
Push SpaceWarp
Motor SpaceWarp
Vortex SpaceWarp
Drag SpaceWarp
PBomb SpaceWarp
iv Contents
Path Follow SpaceWarp
Gravity SpaceWarp
Wind SpaceWarp
Displace SpaceWarp
POmniFlect SpaceWarp
PDynaFlect SpaceWarp
SOmniFlect SpaceWarp
SDynaFlect SpaceWarp
UOmniFlect SpaceWarp
UDynaFlect SpaceWarp
SDeflector SpaceWarp
UDeflector SpaceWarp
Deflector SpaceWarp
FFD(Box) SpaceWarp
FFD(Cyl) SpaceWarp
Wave SpaceWarp
Ripple SpaceWarp
Conform SpaceWarp
Bomb SpaceWarp
Modifier-Based SpaceWarps
Particle Systems
Introduction to Particle Systems
Particle Flow
Particle Flow
Using Particle Flow
How Particle FlowWorks
The Life of a Particle
Introductory Tutorial
Particle Flow FAQ
Particle Flow User Interface
Particle View
Particle View
Particle ViewMenu Bar
Particle View Event Display
Event Display Right-ClickMenu
Particle Flow Source
Particle Flow Keyboard Shortcuts
Action Time Frames
Birth and Death
Birth Operator
Birth Script Operator
Delete Operator
Position Icon Operator
Position Object Operator
Rotation Operator
Spin Operator
Scale Operator
Speed Operator
Speed By Icon Operator
Speed By Surface Operator
Keep Apart Operator
Shape Operator
Shape Facing Operator
Shape Instance Operator
ShapeMark Operator
Material and Mapping
Materials andMapping in Particle View
Material Static Operator
Material Frequency Operator
Material Dynamic Operator
Mapping Operator
Additional Operators
Cache Operator
Display Operator
Force Operator
Notes Operator
Render Operator
Script Operator
Empty Flow
Standard Flow
Age Test
Collision Test
Collision Spawn Test
Find Target Test
Go To Rotation Test
Scale Test
Script Test
Send Out Test
Spawn Test
Speed Test
Split Amount Test
Split Selected Test
Split Source Test
Non-Event-Driven Particle Systems
Contents v
Non-Event-Driven Particle Systems
Using Particle Systems
Particle System Usage
Creating a Particle Emitter
UsingMaterials with Particle Array
Achieving ParticleMotion Blur
UsingMappedMaterials with Particle Systems
UsingMulti/Sub-ObjectMaterials with Particle
Using Spawned Particles
Using Interparticle Collision
Spray Particle System
Snow Particle System
Super Spray Particle System
Blizzard Particle System
PCloud Particle System
PArray Particle System
PArray Particle System
Basic Parameters Rollout (PArray)
Particle Generation Rollout
Particle Type Rollout
Rotation and Collision Rollout
ObjectMotion Inheritance Rollout
BubbleMotion Rollout
Particle Spawn Rollout
Load/Save Presets Rollout
12 Animation
Animation Concepts and Methods
Animation Concepts andMethods
Animation Concepts
Using Auto KeyMode
Using Set KeyMode
Spinner Right-ClickMenu
Viewing and Copying Transform Keys
Controlling Time
Setting Time Segments
Moving Through Time
Choosing a Frame Rate and Playback Speed
Working with Controllers
Working with Controllers
Understanding Controllers
Changing Controller Properties
Assigning Controllers
Specifying Default Controllers
General-Purpose Controllers
Special-Purpose Controllers
Explicit Axis Keys
Float Controllers
Controlling Transforms
Controlling Position
Controlling Rotation
Controlling Colors
Morph Controllers
Motion Panel Commands
PRS Parameters Rollout
Key Info (Basic) Rollout/Dialog
Tangent Types
Key Info (Advanced) Rollout/Dialog
Animation Controllers
Animation Controllers
Audio Controller
BarycentricMorph Controller
Bezier Controllers
Block Controller
Boolean Controller
Color RGB Controller (Point3 XYZ Controller)
Euler XYZ Rotation Controller
Expression Controller
Expression Controller
Expression Controller Techniques
Layer Controller
Layer Controller
Animation Layers
Layer Properties Dialog
Create New Animation Layer Dialog
Limit Controller
Linear Controller
List Controller
Local Euler XYZ Rotation Controller
Look At Controller
Master Point Controller
Motion Capture Controller
Noise Controller
On/Off Controller
Position XYZ Controller
PRS Controller
Reaction Controllers
Reaction Controllers
ReactionManager Dialog
UsingManipulators with Reaction Controllers
Scale XYZ Controller
Script Controller
Smooth Rotation Controller
Spring Controller
TCB Controllers
vi Contents
Transform Script Controller
Waveform Controller
XRef Controller
Controller Subdialogs
Audio Controller Dialog
Attach Controls Dialog (Block Controller)
BarycentricMorph Controller Key Info Dialog
Block Parameters Dialog (Block Controller)
Master Block Parameters Dialog (Block
Master Track Key Info Dialog (Master Point
Slave Parameters Dialog (Block Controller)
Track View Pick Dialog (Block Controller)
Animation Constraints
Animation Constraints
Attachment Constraint
Surface Constraint
Path Constraint
Position Constraint
Link Constraint
LookAt Constraint
Orientation Constraint
Wire Parameters
Wire Parameters
ParameterWiring Dialog
Hierarchies and Kinematics
Hierarchies and Kinematics
Linking Strategy
Linking and Unlinking Objects
Linking and Unlinking Objects
Select and Link
Unlink Selection
Adjusting Pivots
Viewing and Selecting Hierarchies
Animating with Forward Kinematics
Animating with Forward Kinematics
Using Dummy Objects
Animating Links
Adjusting Object Transforms
Locking Object Transforms
Animating Attachment
Changing Link Inheritance
Link Inheritance (Selected) Utility
Animating with Inverse Kinematics (IK)
Inverse Kinematics (IK)
IK Terminology
IK Methods
Inverse KinematicsMethods
IK Solvers
IK Solvers
History-Independent (HI) IK Solver
History-Independent (HI) IK Solver
White Paper: Swivel Angle of the HI IK Solver
HI IK Solver Rollouts (Motion Panel)
IK Solver Rollout (HI Solver)
IK Solver Properties Rollout (HI Solver)
IK Display Options Rollout (HI Solver)
Sliding and Rotational Joints (HI Solver)
History-Dependent (HD) IK
History-Dependent (HD) IK Solver
Binding Objects (HD Solver)
Controlling IK Precision (HD Solver)
HD SolverMotion Panel Rollouts
HD Joint Settings
HD Joint Settings
Setting Joint Precedence (HD Solver)
Using Default Joint Precedence (HD Solver)
Choosing Child-to-Parent Precedence (HD
Choosing Parent-to-Child Precedence (HD
Setting PrecedenceManually (HD Solver)
Terminating Chains (HD Solver)
IK Limb Solver
IK Limb Solver
Spline IK
Spline IK
Spline IK Solver Dialog
Spline IK Solver Rollouts
Interactive and Applied IK
Animating with Interactive IK
Animating with Applied IK
Joint Controls
Setting Joint Parameters
Activating Joint Axes
Limiting Joint Action
Hierarchy Panel Commands
Hierarchy Panel Commands
Adjust Pivot Rollout
Adjust Transform Rollout
HD IK Solver Rollouts
Contents vii
Object Parameters Rollout (HD Solver)
Position/Orientation/Bind to Follow Object
(HD Solver)
Precedence (HD Solver)
Copying, Pasting, and Mirroring Joint
Parameters (HD Solver)
Sliding and Rotational Joints Rollouts (HD
Interactive and Applied IK Rollouts
Inverse Kinematics Rollout
Auto Termination Rollout (Interactive IK)
Link Info
Link Info
Locks Rollout
Inherit Rollout
Track View
Track View
Working with Track View
Track ViewWorkspace
Curve Editor
Dope Sheet
Time Ruler
Track View Shortcuts
Track View Hierarchy
Track View Hierarchy
Hierarchy Right-ClickMenu
Properties (Track View Hierarchy)
Sound Options Dialog
Track View Menus
Track ViewMenu Bar
Controller Menu
Collapse Controller
Keys Menu
Use Soft Select
Soft Selection Settings
Options Menu
Interactive Update
Sync Cursor Time
Auto Expand
Auto Select
Auto Scroll
Modify Subtree
Modify Child Keys
Manual Navigation
Display Menu
Show All Tangents
Keyable Icons
Hide/Show Non-Selected Curves
Track View QuadMenu
Track View Toolbars
Curve Editor Toolbars
Dope Sheet Toolbars
Controller Toolbar
Ranges: Dope Sheet Toolbar
Extras: Dope Sheet Toolbar
Filters Dialog (Track View)
Copy Controller
Paste Controller
Assign Controller
Delete Controller
Ignore Animation Range
Respect Animation Range
Make Controller Unique
Parameter Curve Out-of-Range Types
Add Note Track
Remove Note Track
Editing Keys
Editing Keys
Edit Keys
Snap Frames
Lock Selection
Align to Cursor
Add Visibility Track
Move Keys (Dope Sheet)
Slide Keys
Scale Keys - Time
Add Keys (Dope Sheet)
Properties (Track View KeyWindow)
Track View Utilities
Track View Utilities
Randomize Keys Utility
Create Out of Range Keys Utility
Select Keys By Time Utility
Euler Filter
Current Value Editor
Edit Time
Edit Time
viii Contents
Select Time
Delete Time
Cut Time
Copy Time
Paste Time
Reverse Time
Insert Time
Scale Time
Exclude Left End Point
Exclude Right End Point
Reduce Keys
Edit Ranges
Edit Ranges
Position Ranges
Recouple Ranges
Editing Tracks: Copying, Pasting, and
Handling Instances and References
Copying and Pasting Items
Copying and Pasting Objects
Making Instance and Reference Controllers and
Objects Unique
Curve Editor
Curve Editor
Move Keys (Curve Editor)
Scale Keys
Scale Values
Add Keys (Curve Editor)
Draw Curves
Show Tangents
Lock Tangents
Apply Ease Curve / ApplyMultiplier Curve
Remove Ease/Multiplier Curve
On/Off (Curves)
Ease Curve Out-of-Range Types
Multiplier Curve Out-of-Range Types
Freeze Non-Selected Curves
Status Bar/View Controls
Status Bar/View Controls
Zoom Selected Object
Select By Name (Track View)
Track Sets List
Track Sets Editor Dialog
Key Time Display
Value Display
Show Selected Key Statistics
Pan (Track View)
Zoom Horizontal Extents
Zoom Value Extents
Zoom Track View KeyWindow
Zoom Region (Track View)
Managing Track View Windows
New Track View
Delete Track View
Delete Track View Dialog
Saved Track Views
Track View Customization
Track View Toolbar Right-ClickMenu
Motion Mixer
Motion Mixer
Using the Motion Mixer
Using theMotion Mixer
Adding Tracks to theMixer
Importing Clips to theMixer
Working with Clips in theMixer
FilteringMixer Tracks
Adjusting Clip Timing
Working with Transitions
Adjusting TrackWeight
Adding TimeWarps
Adjusting Biped Balance in the Mixer
Exporting Animation to the Biped
Using the Reservoir
Motion Mixer User Interface
Motion Mixer Interface
Motion MixerMenus
Motion Mixer Dialogs
Mixer Clip Source Options Dialog
Copy Biped Animation to Clip Dialog
Reservoir File Groups Dialog
Mixer Transition Editor Dialog (Biped Object)
Mixer Transition Editor Dialog (Non-Biped
Pick Nodes Dialog (Motion Mixer)
Transition Optimization Dialog
Motion Mixer Toolbar
Trackgroup Filter Dialog (Biped Object)
Trackgroup Filter Dialog (Non-Biped Object)
Motion Mixer Editor
Mixer Preferences Dialog
Mixer Rollout
Animation Utilities
Animation Utilities
Follow/Bank Utility
Motion Capture Utility
MACUtilities Utility
Camera Tracker Utility
Camera Tracker Utility
Contents ix
Requirements for Camera Tracking
Camera Tracker: Movie Rollout
Camera Tracker: MovieWindow
Camera Tracker: Motion Trackers Rollout
Camera Tracker: Movie Stepper Rollout
Camera Tracker: Error Thresholds Rollout
Camera Tracker: Batch Track Rollout
Camera Tracker: Position Data Rollout
Camera Tracker: MatchMove Rollout
Camera Tracker: Move Smoothing Rollout
Camera Tracker: Object Pinning Rollout
Camera Tracker: Troubleshooting
Dynamics Utility
Edit Object Dialog
Edit Object List Dialog
Skin Utilities
13 reactor
Introducing Dynamics Simulation
Special Features in reactor
reactor Helpers
Rigid Bodies
Rigid Bodies
Rigid Body Basics
Rigid Body Properties
Compound Rigid Bodies
Rigid Body Collection
Constraint Concepts
Simple Constraints
Simple Constraints
Linear Dashpot
Angular Dashpot
Cooperative Constraints
Cooperative Constraints
Constraint Solver
Rag Doll Constraint
Defining Rag Doll Limits
Hinge Constraint
Point-Point Constraint
Prismatic Constraint
Car-Wheel Constraint
Point-Path Constraint
reactor Objects
Toy Car
Fracture Tips
Storing and Accessing Collisions
Deformable Bodies
Deformable Bodies
Cloth Collection
Soft Bodies
Soft Bodies
Soft BodyModifier
FFD Soft Bodies
Soft Body Collection
Rope Collection
Deforming Meshes
DeformingMeshes (Skin)
DeformingMesh Collection
Deformable-Body Constraints
Constraining Deformable Bodies
Fixing Vertices inWorld Space
Keyframing Vertices
Attaching Vertices to a Rigid Body
Attaching Vertices to DeformingMeshes (Skin)
Soft Selection
Water Simulation
Water SpaceWarp
The reactor Utility
The reactor Utility
Preview & Animation Rollout
Havok 1World/Havok 3World Rollout
Collisions Rollout
Display Rollout
reactor Utilities
Properties Rollout
The Real-Time Preview
Frequently Asked Questions
x Contents
14 character studio
character studio
What is character studio?
What You Should Know to Use character studio
Understanding Biped
Understanding Physique
Understanding Track Editing
Understanding theWorkbench
UnderstandingMotion Flow
Understanding Crowds
Understanding character studioWorkflow
Creating a Biped
Understanding Biped Anatomy
Changing Initial Biped Anatomy
Naming the Biped
Posing the Biped
Scaling Links
Rubber-Banding Arms and Legs
Biped Display Options
Deleting a Biped
Linking Character Body Parts to the Biped
Saving and Loading FIG Files
Footstep Animation
Footstep Animation
Creating Footsteps
Creating Footsteps
Planning for Footsteps
Choosing a Gait
Creating Footsteps Automatically
Creating FootstepsManually
Activating Footsteps
Deactivating Footsteps
Understanding Footstep and Body Keys
Editing Footstep Motion
Editing FootstepMotion
Editing Footstep Placement
Editing Footstep Timing
Editing Active Footsteps
Splicing Footsteps
Animating Legs and Feet
Animating the Upper Body
Adjusting Body Keys in Track View
Shifting the Bipedís Balance
Adjusting VerticalMotion
Saving Footstep Animation
Footsteps and Freeform Animation
Footstep and Freeform Animation
Freeform Animation Between Footsteps
Converting Between Footstep and Freeform
Freeform Animation
Freeform Animation
Creating Freeform Animation
Creating Freeform Animation
Selecting Biped Tracks
Animating byMoving Links
Animating by Rotating Links
RotatingMultiple Biped Links
Using Controllers
Using Props
Freeform and IK
Using IK Keyframe Parameters
UnderstandingWalk Cycle Constraints
Setting Keys for Feet and Hands
Animating Pivots
Animating a Quadruped
Animating IK Attachments
Editing Freeform Animation
Editing Freeform Animation
Editing Biped Keys
Copying and Pasting Postures and Poses
Using Layers
Editing Trajectory Keys
Working with Biped Animation
Working with Euler Curves on Biped Animation
Working with XRef Bipeds
Loading, Saving, and Displaying Biped
Working with BipedMotion Files
Loading and Saving BIP Animation
Importing and Exporting Animation Data
MotionMapping: Retargeting BipedMotion
Merging and Cloning a Character
Combining BIPMotions
Loading and Saving STP Files
UsingMotion-Capture Data
Correcting Posture
Copying and Pasting Tracks
Repositioning the Biped
Previewing BipedMotion
In PlaceMode
Trajectory Display
Display Preferences
Biped User Interface
Biped User Interface
Contents xi
Motion Panel (Biped)
Center ofMass
Motion Panel Rollouts (Biped)
Assign Controller Rollout (character studio)
Biped Apps Rollout
Biped Rollout
Biped Rollout
Save As Dialog (Biped)
Open Dialog (Biped)
Display Preferences Dialog
Track Selection Rollout
Quaternion/Euler Rollout
Twist Poses Rollout
Bend Links Rollout
Key Info Rollout
Keyframing Tools Rollout
SetMultiple Keys Dialog
Copy/Paste Rollout
Layers Rollout
Dynamics & Adaptation Rollout
Figure Mode
Structure Rollout
Footstep Mode Rollouts
Footstep Creation Rollout
Footstep Operations Rollout
CreateMultiple Footsteps Dialog: Walk
CreateMultiple Footsteps Dialog: Run
CreateMultiple Footsteps Dialog: Jump
Convert to Freeform or Footsteps Dialogs
FootstepMode Dialog
Track View (Biped)
Biped Color-coded Keys and Trajectories
Biped Shortcuts
Using the Workbench
Working with theWorkbench
Navigating theWorkbench
SelectingWorkbench Tracks
Analyzing Curves
Fixing Curves
Workbench User Interface
Select Panel
Analyze Panel
Fix Panel
Filters Panel
Using Motion Flow
Working withMotion Flow
PlacingMotions on theMotion Flow Graph
Creating Transitions
Creating aMotion Flow Script
Saving, Loading, and AppendingMotion Flow
Customizing Transitions
Creating RandomMotion
SharingMotion Flow
Setting Up Paths forMotion Flow Files
Motion Flow User Interface
Motion FlowMode
Motion Flow Rollout
Motion Flow Graph Dialog
Motion Flow Scripts Group
Transition Editor
Create RandomMotion Dialog
SharedMotion Flow Dialog
Transition Optimization Dialog
Clip Properties Dialog
Using Motion Capture
Working withMotion-Capture Data
ImportingMotion-Capture Data
FilteringMotion-Capture andMarker Data
Sliding Footsteps
Prop Bone
Motion Capture User Interface
Motion Capture Rollout
Motion Capture Conversion Parameters Dialog
Motion Capture Batch File Conversion Dialog
Marker Display Dialog
Using Physique
Creating a Skin
Using Physique with a Biped
Using Physique with 3dsMax Bones
Using Physique with 3dsMax Objects
Applying and Initializing Physique
Envelopes and Vertex Assignments
Adjusting Default Envelope Shape
Fine-Tuning Envelopes
Customizing Vertex Assignments
Envelope Display Options
Working with Deformable Envelopes
Working with Rigid Envelopes
xii Contents
Working with Both Deformable and Rigid
Adjusting Link Parameters
Partial Blending andWeight Assignments
Creating Bulges
Setting Bulge Angles
Fine-Tuning Bulges
Creating Tendons
Saving and Loading Physique Data
Reinitializing Physique Settings
Working with an Initial Pose
Improving Interactive Performance
Scaling a Character
Facial Animation
Physique and Modifiers
Combining Physique with OtherModifiers
Physique and Free Form Deformations (FFDs)
Physique User Interface
Physique User Interface
Physique Rollout
Physique Level of Detail Rollout
Floating Bones Rollout
Physique Shortcuts
Physique Dialogs
Physique Initialization Dialog
Reinitialize Physique
Bulge Editor
Physique Load Specification Dialog
Physique Initialization Rollouts
Vertex-Link Assignment Rollout
Cross Sections Rollout
Sub-Object Options Dialogs
Blending Envelope Display Options Dialog
Exclude Envelopes Dialog
Bulge Angle Display Properties Dialog
Tendon Display Options Dialog
Type-InWeights Dialog
Physique Modifier Sub-Object Levels
Physique Sub-Objects
Envelope Sub-Object
Link Sub-Object
Link Sub-Object
Link Settings Rollout
Joint Intersections Rollout
Bulge Sub-Object
Tendons Sub-Object
Vertex Sub-Object (Physique)
Crowd Animation
Crowd Animation
Creating a Crowd System
Creating Crowd Helpers
Adjusting Delegate Parameters
Assigning Behaviors
Directing Delegates
Obstacle Avoidance
Changing Delegate Orientation and Speed
Solving the Simulation
Linking Objects to Delegates
Cognitive Controllers
Using Motion Synthesis
UsingMotion Synthesis
Biped Crowds
Non-Biped Crowds
Crowd Animation User Interface
Crowd Animation User Interface
Crowd Shortcuts
Delegate Helper Object
Geometry Parameters Rollout
Motion Parameters Rollout
Crowd Helper Object
Crowd Helper Object
Setup Rollout
Setup Rollout
Scatter Objects Dialog
Random Placement Difficulty Dialog
Object/Delegate Associations Dialog
EditMultiple Delegates Dialog
Associate BipedsWith Delegates Dialog
Behavior Assignments and Teams Dialog
Select Behavior Type Dialog
Select Delegates Dialog
Cognitive Controllers
Cognitive Controller Editor
State Dialog
State Transition Dialog
Behavior Rollout
Behavior Rollout
Avoid Behavior
Orientation Behavior
Path Follow Behavior
Repel Behavior
Scripted Behavior
Seek Behavior
Contents xiii
SpaceWarp Behavior
Speed Vary Behavior
Surface Arrive Behavior
Surface Follow Behavior
Wall Repel Behavior
Wall Seek Behavior
Wander Behavior
Solve Rollout
Priority Rollout
Set Start Frames Dialog
Smoothing Rollout
Collisions Rollout
Geometry Rollout
Global Clip Controllers Rollout
Vector Field Space Warp
Vector Field SpaceWarp
CreateMethod Rollout
Lattice Parameters Rollout
Obstacle Parameters Rollout
Motion Synthesis
Motion Synthesis
Synthesis Dialog
Synthesis Dialog
Motion Clips Panel
State Panel
Synthesis Panel
MotionClip Parameters Dialog
Track View Pick Dialog
ClipState Dialog
ClipState Dialog
Speed Panel
Acceleration Panel
Pitch Panel
Pitch Velocity Panel
Heading Velocity Panel
Script Panel
File Formats and Index of Procedures
character studio File Formats
15 Lights and Cameras
Lights and Cameras
Name and Color Rollout (Lights)
Using Lights
Using Lights
Working with Lights
Properties of Light
Lighting in 3dsMax
Guidelines for Lighting
Positioning Light Objects
Animating Lights
Light Include/Exclude Tool
Light Lister
Standard Lights
Standard Lights
Target Spotlight
Free Spotlight
Target Direct Light
Free Direct Light
Omni Light
mr Area Omni Light
mr Area Spotlight
Photometric Lights
Photometric Lights
Photometric Lights: Preset Lights
Target Point Light (Photometric)
Free Point Light (Photometric)
Target Linear Light (Photometric)
Free Linear Light (Photometric)
Target Area Light (Photometric)
Free Area Light (Photometric)
IES Sun Light (Photometric)
IES Sky Light (Photometric)
mental ray Sun & Sky
mental ray Sun & Sky
mr Sky
mr Sun
mr Physical Sky
Isotropic Light Distribution (Photometric
Diffuse Distribution (Photometric Lights)
Spotlight Distribution (Photometric Lights)
Web Distribution (Photometric Lights)
IES Standard File Format
Example of Photometric Data File
Common Lamp Values for Photometric Lights
Common Lighting Rollouts
General Lighting Parameters
Exclude/Include Dialog
Shadow Parameters
Spotlight Parameters
Advanced Effects Rollout
mental ray Indirect Illumination Rollout (for
xiv Contents
mental ray Light Shader Rollout
Additional Rollouts for Standard Lights
Intensity/Color/Attenuation Parameters
Directional Parameters
Atmospheres and Effects for Lights
Add Atmosphere or Effect Dialog
Hair Light Attr(ibutes) Rollout
Additional Rollouts for Photometric Lights
Intensity/Color/Distribution Rollout
Linear Light Parameters Rollout
Area Light Parameters Rollout
Area Light Sampling Rollout
Web Parameters Rollout
Rollouts for Specific Shadow Types
Advanced Ray-Traced Parameters Rollout
Area Shadows Rollout
mental ray ShadowMap Rollout
Optimizations Rollout
Ray-Traced Shadow Parameters Rollout
ShadowMap Parameters Rollout
Free Camera
Target Camera
Using Cameras
Characteristics of Cameras
Common Camera Parameters
Using Transforms to Aim a Camera
Using Clipping Planes to Exclude Geometry
Using the Horizon toMatch Perspective
Animating Cameras
Multi-Pass Rendering Effects
Multi-Pass Rendering Effects
Depth of Field Parameter (mental ray Renderer)
Multi-Pass Depth of Field Parameters for
Multi-PassMotion Blur Parameters for Cameras
Camera Match Utility
CameraMatch Utility
Camera Match Helper Objects
CameraMatch Helper
CamPoint Helper
Two-Point Perspective
Camera CorrectionModifier
16 Material Editor, Materials, and Maps
Material Editor,Materials, andMaps
Designing Materials
Sample Slots andMaterial Name
Material Type
Shading Type
Material Components
Lights and Shading
Choosing Colors for Realism
UsingMaps to Enhance aMaterial
Applying aMaterial to an Object
Mapping Coordinates
Saving aMaterial
Material XML Exporter Utility
UVW Remove Utility
Material Editor
Material Editor
Material/Map Browser
Copying and Pasting: Right-Click Menu for
Materials,Maps, Bitmaps, and Colors
Sample Slots
Sample Slots
Sample Slot Right-ClickMenu
Dragging and DroppingMaps andMaterials
Drag and Drop Sub-Object Material
Creating a Custom Sample Object
Material Editor Tools
Material Editor Tools
Material EditorMenu Bar
Reflectance and Transmittance Display
Sample Type
PropagateMaterials to Instances
Sample Slot Background
Sample UV Tiling
Video Color Check
Make Preview, Play Preview, Save Preview
Material Editor Options
Select ByMaterial
PutMaterial to Scene
AssignMaterial to Selection
ResetMap/Mtl to Default Settings
MakeMaterial Copy
Make Unique (Material Editor)
Put to Library
Material ID Channel
Material ID Channel Flyout
ShowMap in Viewport
Show End Result
Go to Parent
Contents xv
Go Forward to Sibling
Material/Map Navigator
PickMaterial From Object (Eyedropper)
Name Field (Materials andMaps)
Type Button (Materials andMaps)
Animating Materials
Creating and Playing Animated Material
Synchronizing an Animated Bitmap with the
Material Editor Subdialogs
Copy (Instance)Map Dialog
Copy or Swap Colors Dialog
CreateMaterial Preview Dialog
Duplicate Name Dialog (Material Library)
Merge Dialog (Material Library)
MergeMaterial Library Dialog
Put to Library Dialog
RenderMap Dialog
ReplaceMap Dialog
ReplaceMaterial Dialog
Update SceneMaterials Dialog
Types ofMaterials
SuperSampling Rollout
mental ray Connection Rollout
DirectXManager Rollout
Standard Material
Shader Basic Parameters Rollout
Understanding Shaders
Basic Parameters Rollout (StandardMaterial)
Extended Parameters Rollout (Standard
Maps Rollout (StandardMaterial)
Dynamics Properties Rollout
BasicMaterial Shaders
Anisotropic Shader
Blinn Shader
Metal Shader
Multi-Layer Shader
Oren-Nayar-Blinn Shader
Phong Shader
Strauss Shader
Translucent Shader
Basic Parameters for Standard Materials
Color Controls
Self-Illumination Setting
Diffuse Level
Translucency Setting
Specular Highlight Controls
Anisotropic Highlights
Blinn, Oren-Nayar-Blinn, and Phong
Metal Highlights
Multi-Layer Highlights
Translucent Highlights
Mapping Standard Material Components
Ambient ColorMapping
Diffuse ColorMapping
Diffuse LevelMapping
Diffuse RoughnessMapping
Specular ColorMapping
Specular LevelMapping
Filter ColorMapping
Raytrace Material
Raytrace Basic Parameters Rollout
Raytrace Extended Parameters Rollout
Raytracer Controls Rollout
RaytraceMaps Rollout
Raytrace Dynamics Properties Rollout
Raytracer Global Parameters Rollout
Raytracing Acceleration Parameters Dialog
Raytrace Exclude/Include Dialog
Raytrace Antialiaser Dialog: Fast Adaptive
Raytrace Antialiaser Dialog: Multiresolution
Adaptive Antialiaser
Architectural Material
Templates Rollout
Physical Qualities Rollout
Special Effects Rollout
Advanced Lighting Override Rollout
xvi Contents
mental ray Materials
mental rayMaterials
mental ray Material
mental rayMaterial
Material Shaders Rollout (mental rayMaterial)
Advanced Shaders Rollout (mental ray
Arch & Design Material (mental ray)
Arch & DesignMaterial (mental ray)
Arch & Design Material (mental ray) Ė
Arch & Design Material (mental ray) Ė Tips &
Car PaintMaterial/Shader (mental ray)
DGSMaterial (mental ray)
GlassMaterial (mental ray)
Subsurface Scattering (SSS)Materials
Compound Materials
Advanced Lighting OverrideMaterial
Ink ín PaintMaterial
DirectX 9 ShaderMaterial
DirectX Viewport Shaders
LightMap Shader Rollout
Metal Bump Shader Rollout
Types ofMaps
Output Rollout
MissingMap Coordinates Dialog
Coordinates Rollout (2D)
Noise Rollout (2D)
Bitmap 2DMap
Select Bitmap Image File Dialog
Gradient RampMap
Flag Properties Dialog
Coordinates Rollout (3D)
Particle AgeMap
Particle MBlurMap
Color Modifier
RGB TintMap
Vertex ColorMap
Reflection and Refraction
Reflection and RefractionMaps
Flat MirrorMap
ThinWall RefractionMap
Raytrace Map Rollouts
Raytracer Parameters Rollout
Raytrace: Attenuation Rollout
Raytrace: BasicMaterial Extensions Rollout
Raytrace: Refractive Material Extensions
mental ray Shaders
mental ray Shaders
Contents xvii
Custom Shaders for 3dsMax
mental images Shader Libraries
Shaders in the LumeTools Collection
Connect Parameter to Shader Dialog (mental
3ds Max Custom Shaders
3D Displacement Shader (mental ray)
Bump Shader (mental ray)
DGSMaterial Shader (mental ray)
DielectricMaterial Shader (mental ray)
Environment Shader (mental ray)
HeightMap Displacement Shader (mental ray)
Material to Shader (mental ray)
Shader List (mental ray)
UV Generator
UV Generator Shader (mental ray)
UV Generator Parameters Rollout
Shaders Rollout (UV Generator)
UV Coordinate Shader (mental ray)
XYZ Generator
XYZ Generator Shader (mental ray)
XYZ Generator Parameters Rollout
Shaders Rollout (XYZ Generator)
XYZ Coordinate Shader (mental ray)
Normal BumpMap
CameraMap Per PixelMap
Material, Mapping, and Vertex Color Utilities
Assign Vertex Colors Utility
Channel Info Utility
CleanMultiMaterial Utility
Instance DuplicateMaps Utility
17 Rendering
Render Scene Dialog
Rendered FrameWindow
Render Output File Dialog
Rendering Commands
Rendering Commands
Render Scene
Render Type
Render Bounding Box/Selected Dialog
Quick Render Flyout
Quick Render (Production)
Quick Render (ActiveShade)
ActiveShade Floater
ActiveShade Viewport
ActiveShade Commands (QuadMenu)
Preset Rendering Options
Show Last Rendering
Render Last
Print SizeWizard
Common Rendering Parameters
Common Panel (Render Scene Dialog)
Common Parameters Rollout (Render Scene
Configure Preset Dialog
Email Notifications Rollout
Scripts Rollout (Render Scene Dialog)
Assign Renderer Rollout
Choose Renderer Dialog
Renderer Panel (Render Scene Dialog)
Default Scanline Renderer
Default Scanline Renderer Rollout
Advanced Lighting with the Scanline Renderer
Advanced Lighting Panel
Light Tracer
Light Tracer
Modeling Global Illumination with Radiosity
How RadiosityWorks in 3dsMax
Animation with Radiosity
Radiosity Controls
Radiosity Rollouts
Radiosity Processing Parameters Rollout
RadiosityMeshing Parameters Rollout
Light Painting Rollout (Radiosity)
Rendering Parameters Rollout (Radiosity)
Statistics Rollout (Radiosity)
Lighting Analysis
Lighting Analysis
Multi-Pass Rendering Effects
UsingMulti-Pass Rendering Effects
mental ray 3
mental ray Renderer
Rendering with the mental ray Renderer
Getting Good Results with mental ray Rendering
3dsMaxMaterials in mental ray Renderings
Enhancements to Standard Features
Processing Panel (mental ray Renderer)
mental rayMessagesWindow
mental ray Concepts
mental ray Concepts
Ray-Traced Reflections and Refractions with
the mental ray Renderer
Shadows with the mental ray Renderer
Motion Blur with the mental ray Renderer
iv Contents
Depth of Field with the mental ray Renderer
Caustic Lighting Effects
Global Illumination with the mental ray Renderer
mental ray Volume Shading
mental ray Displacement
mental ray Contour Shading
mental ray Renderer Rollouts
Sampling Quality Rollout (mental ray Renderer)
Camera Effects Rollout (mental ray Renderer)
Caustics and Global Illumination Rollout
(mental ray Renderer)
Final Gather Rollout (mental ray Renderer)
Shadows and Displacement Rollout (mental ray
Rendering Algorithms Rollout (mental ray
Translator Options Rollout (mental ray
Diagnostics Rollout (mental ray Renderer)
Distributed Bucket Rendering Rollout (mental
ray Renderer)
Add/Edit DBR Host Dialog
Ray-Trace Acceleration Parameters
Ray-Trace Acceleration: Parameters for the BSP
Ray-Trace Acceleration: Parameters for the
VUE File Renderer
VUE File Renderer
Rendering Elements Separately
Render Elements Panel and Rollout
Render Elements Dialog
Render Element Output File Dialog
Blend Element Parameters Rollout
Hair and Fur Render Element
Lighting Texture Element Rollout
Matte Texture Element Rollout
Velocity Element Parameters Rollout
Z Element Parameters Rollout
Diffuse Texture Element Rollout
Rendering to Textures
Render to Texture
Baked Texture Elements
TargetMap Slot Assignments
Creating and Using Normal BumpMaps
Troubleshooting Normal BumpMaps
Render to Textures Dialog
Render to Texture Dialog
Render to Texture: General Settings Rollout
Render to Texture: Objects to Bake Rollout
Render to Texture: Output Rollout
Render to Texture: BakedMaterial Rollout
Render to Texture: AutomaticMapping Rollout
Render to Texture: Add Texture Elements Dialog
Render to Texture: Projection Options Dialog
Rendering Previews
Rendering Previews
Make Preview
View Preview
Rename Preview
Panorama Exporter
Panorama Exporter Utility
Panorama Exporter Render Setup Dialog
Panorama Exporter Viewer
Network Rendering
Network Rendering
Basic Procedures for Network Rendering
How Network RenderingWorks
Starting Network Rendering
Troubleshooting Guide
Software Setup
Setting Up Rendering Software
Setting Up Directories
Sharing a Directory
Mounting a Directory
Using Configure User Paths
Network Job Assignment
Network Job Assignment Dialog
Job Dependencies Dialog
Notifications Dialog
Strips Setup Dialog
Advanced Settings Dialog
Batch Rendering
Batch Rendering
Quick Start Batch Rendering
Using Backburner for Batch Rendering
Batch Rendering - Batch Render Dialog
Batch Render Tool - Batch RenderWarning
Command-Line Rendering
Command-Line Rendering
Command-Line Rendering Switches
Backburner Command Line Control
18 Effects and Environments
Effects and Environments
Environment and Effects Dialog
Rendering Effects
Contents v
Rendering Effects
Rendering Effects Command
Effects Panel and Rollout
Merging Effects
Hair and Fur Render Effect
Lens Effects Rendering Effects
Lens Effects Rendering Effects
Glow Lens Effect
Ring Lens Effect
Ray Lens Effect
Auto Secondary Lens Effect
Manual Secondary Lens Effect
Star Lens Effect
Streak Lens Effect
Lens Effects Dialogs
Circular Falloff Graph (Lens Effects)
Radial Density Dialog (Lens Effects)
Radial Falloff Dialog (Lens Effects)
Radial Size Dialog (Lens Effects)
Blur Rendering Effect
Brightness and Contrast Rendering Effect
Color Balance Rendering Effect
File Output Rendering Effect
Film Grain Rendering Effect
Motion Blur Rendering Effect
Depth of Field Rendering Effect
Environment and Atmosphere Effects
Environment and Atmosphere Effects
Environment Panel
Fire Environment Effect
Fog Environment Effect
Volume Fog Environment Effect
Volume Light Environment Effect
Exposure Controls
Exposure Controls
Automatic Exposure Control
Linear Exposure Control
Logarithmic Exposure Control
Pseudo Color Exposure Control
Lighting Data Exporter Utility
Atmospheric Apparatus Helper Objects
Atmospheric Apparatus
Add Atmosphere Dialog
BoxGizmo Helper
CylGizmo Helper
SphereGizmo Helper
19 Video Post-Production
Video Post
Video Post Queue
Video Post Status Bar / View Controls
Troubleshooting Video Post
Useful Video Post Procedures
Video Post Toolbar
Video Post Toolbar
New Sequence
Open Sequence
Save Sequence
Edit Current Event
Delete Current Event
Swap Events
Execute Sequence
Configure Presets
Edit Range Bar
Align Selected Left
Align Selected Right
Make Selected Same Size
Abut Selected
Add Scene Event
Add Image Input Event
Image Input Options
Add Image Filter Event
Add Image Layer Event
Add Image Output Event
Add External Event
Add Loop Event
Filter Events
Contrast Filter
Fade Filter
Image Alpha Filter
Lens Effects Filters
Negative Filter
Pseudo Alpha Filter
SimpleWipe Filter
Starfield Filter
Lens Effects Filters
Animating Lens Effects Properties
Flare Filter
Lens Effects Flare Filter
Flare Preferences
Flare Glow Parameters
Flare Ring Parameters
Automatic Secondary Flare Parameters
Manual Secondary Flare Parameters
Flare Ray Parameters
Flare Star Parameters
Flare Streak Parameters
Flare Inferno Parameters
vi Contents
Lens Effects Focus Filter
Glow Filter
Lens Effects Glow Filter
Glow Properties
Glow Preferences
Glow Inferno
Highlight Filter
Lens Effects Highlight Filter
Highlight Properties
Highlight Geometry
Highlight Preferences
Lens Effects Gradients
Lens Effects Gradients
Gradient Options
Types of Gradients
Gradient Colors
Layer Events
Alpha Compositor
Cross Fade Compositor
Pseudo Alpha Compositor
Simple Additive Compositor
SimpleWipe Compositor
20 Managing Scenes and Projects
Managing Scenes and Projects
File-Handling Commands
File-Handling Commands
Open from Vault
Open Recent
Save As
Save Copy As
Save Selected
Set Project Folder
External References (XRefs)
External References (XRefs)
XRef Objects
XRef Objects Dialog
XRef Record List Right-ClickMenu
XRef Entities List Right-ClickMenu
XRefMerge Dialog
XRef Scene
XRef Scenes Dialog
XRef Object Rollout
Proxy Object Rollout
Missing XRef Paths Dialog
File Link
File Link
Working with Drawing Files
File Link Tips
Interpreting Layer Data from AutoCAD,
AutoCAD Architecture, or Revit
Scale Synchronization
File Link Manager
File LinkManager Utility
File Link Settings Dialog
Basic File Link Settings
Advanced File Link Settings
Spline Rendering File Link Settings
New Settings Preset Dialog
Rename Settings Preset Dialog
Preset Editing
Differences Between Layers and Blocks in
AutoCAD and 3dsMax
Select Layers Dialog
Resolve External Reference File Dialog
Select Linked Objects Dialog
Working with AutoCAD, AutoCAD
Architecture, and Revit Files
Working with AutoCAD, AutoCAD
Architecture, and Revit Files
AutoCAD Geometry in 3ds Max
AutoCAD Geometry in 3dsMax
AutoCAD Entities and Blocks in 3dsMax
Resetting Transforms on Linked AutoCAD
Restrictions on Editing AutoCAD Geometry
AutoCAD Architecture Files in 3ds Max
AutoCAD Architecture Files
AutoCAD Architecture Objects in 3dsMax
Materials and Linked AutoCAD Architecture
Materials and Linked AutoCAD Architecture
Assigning Materials to Linked AutoCAD
Architecture Objects
Making Changes to AutoCAD Architecture
UVW Mapping in AutoCAD Architecture
Drawings Exported from Revit in 3ds Max
Drawings Exported from Revit
Revit Elements in 3dsMax
Suggested Settings and Workflow
Suggested Settings for Revit Projects
Contents vii
Suggested Workflow for Revit to 3ds Max
Materials and Linked Revit Objects
Materials and Linked Revit Objects
ApplyingMaterials to Linked Revit Objects
Editing RevitMaterials in 3dsMax
UVWMapping on Revit Elements
Using RevitMaterials on 3dsMax Geometry
Instanced Objects, Blocks, and Styles
Instanced Objects, Elements, Blocks and Styles
Instanced Objects
Family Elements
Merge File Dialog
Merge Animation
Saving and Loading Animation
Saving and Loading Animation
Load Animation
Save Animation
Map Animation Dialog
MotionMapping Parameters Rollout
Map Track to Track Rollout
Retargeting Rollout
Export Selected
Asset Tracking
Asset Tracking
Asset Tracking Dialog
Global Settings and Defaults for Bitmap Proxies
Prompts Dialog
Asset Tracking Dialog Icons
Summary Info
File Properties
View Image File
Missing External Files Dialog
File-Handling Utilities
Asset Browser Utility
Bitmap/Photometric Path Editor Utility
MAX File Finder Utility
Resource Collector Utility
Fix Ambient Utility
Bitmap Pager Statistics Dialog
Asset Browser Subdialogs
Preferences Dialog (Asset Browser)
Internet Download Dialog
Favorite Location Dialog
Bitmap Path Editor Subdialogs
Bitmap / Photometric Path Editor Dialog
Resource Information Dialog
Scene States
Scene States
Manage Scene States Dialog
Internet Access
Internet Access
i-drop Indicator
Geometry File Formats
Geometry File Formats
Importing Geometry
Working with MAX Files from Autodesk VIZ
Working withMAX Files from Autodesk VIZ
VIZ Render (DRF) Files
VIZ Render (DRF) Files
Working with DRF Files in 3dsMax
3D Studio Mesh (3DS, PRJ) Files
Importing 3DS Files
Importing PRJ Files
Exporting to 3DS
3D Studio Shape (SHP) Files
Importing SHP Files
Adobe Illustrator (AI) Files
Importing Adobe Illustrator 88 Files
Exporting to Adobe Illustrator
Exporting to ASCII
AutoCAD (DWG) Files
Importing AutoCAD Drawing Files
DWG/DXF Import: Geometry Panel
DWG/DXF Import: Layers Panel
DWG/DXF Import: Spline Rendering Panel
Legacy AutoCAD Import
Exporting AutoCAD DWG Files
AutoCAD Interchange (DXF) Files
Importing DXF Files
Exporting to DXF Files
Autodesk Inventor Files
Importing Autodesk Inventor Files
DWF Files
Exporting 3D DWF Files
FBX Files
IGES Files
Overview of IGES in 3dsMax
viii Contents
IGES Log Files
Importing IGES Files
IGES to 3dsMax Import Table
Exporting IGES Files
3dsMax to IGES Export Table
JSR-184 Files
Exporting JSR-184 Files
JSR-184 Texture Tool
JSR-184 Object Parameters
JSR-184 Log Files
JSR-184 Standalone Player
LandXML (XML, DEM) Files
Importing LandXML/DEMModels
LandXML/DEMModel Import Dialog
Lightscape Files
Exporting Lightscape Files
Importing Lightscape Files
LightscapeMaterials Utility
Motion Analysis Files (HTR/HTR2, TRC)
Importing HTR/HTR2 Files
Importing TRC Files
Exporting HTR/HTR2 Files
Shockwave Files (W3D)
Exporting to Shockwave 3D
Shockwave 3D Scene Export Options Dialog
Shockwave 3D Export Preview
Shockwave 3D File AnalysisWindow
Stereolithography (STL) Files
Importing STL Files
Exporting to STL
Wavefront (OBJ, MTL) Files
ImportingWavefront (OBJ,MTL) Files
ExportingWavefront Object (OBJ) Files
ExportingWavefrontMaterial (MTL) Files
VRML Files
Importing VRML Files
Exporting to VRML97
VRML97 Export
VRML97 Export
VRML97 Tips
VRML97 Specification
VRML97 Helper Objects
VRML97 Helper Objects
Anchor VRML97 Helper
ProxSensor VRML97 Helper
NavInfo VRML97 Helper
Fog VRML97 Helper
Sound VRML97 Helper
LOD VRML97 Helper
TouchSensor VRML97 Helper
TimeSensor VRML97 Helper
Background VRML97 Helper
AudioClip VRML97 Helper
Billboard VRML97 Helper
Inline VRML97 Helper
Image File Formats
Image File Formats
AVI Files
BMP Files
CIN (Kodak Cineon) Files
CWS (CombustionWorkspace) Files
DDS Files
EPS and PS (Encapsulated PostScript) Files
GIF Files
HDRI Files
IFL File Format
IFL Files
Image File List Control Dialog
IFLManager Utility
IMSQ Files
JPEG Files
MOV (QuickTimeMovie) Files
MPEG Files
OpenEXR Files
OpenEXR Files
Saving OpenEXR Files
Opening OpenEXR Files
PIC Files
PNG Files
PSD Files
RLA Files
RPF Files
RGB (SGI Image) Files
TGA (Targa) Files
TIFF Files
YUV Files
RAM Player
RAMPlayer Configuration Dialog
Schematic View
Schematic View
Using Schematic View
Schematic ViewMenus
Schematic View List Views
Schematic View Preferences Dialog
Schematic View Toolbars
Schematic View Display Floater
Schematic View Commands
Contents ix
New Schematic View
Delete Schematic View
Saved Schematic Views
Schematic View Selection Right-ClickMenu
Using Layers to Organize a Scene
Layer Properties Dialog
Layer List
Create New Layer
Add Selection to Current Layer
Select Objects in Current Layer
Set Current Layer to Selectionís Layer
21 User Interface
User Interface
Additional Keyboard Commands
Toggling Dialogs
Starting 3dsMax from the Command Line
Menu Bar
Menu Bar
Graph EditorsMenu
MAXScript Interface
Main Toolbar
Axis Constraints Toolbar
Layers Toolbar
reactor Toolbar
Extras Toolbar
Render Shortcuts Toolbar
Snaps Toolbar
Animation Layers Toolbar
Brush Presets Toolbar
Brush PresetManager
Right-ClickMenu for Scripted Toolbar Buttons
Quad Menu
Additional QuadMenus
Animation QuadMenu
Status Bar Controls
Status Bar Controls
Prompt Line
MAXScriptMini Listener
Status Line
Time Slider
Track Bar
Selection Lock Toggle
Coordinate Display
Grid Setting Display
Time Tag
Add Time Tag Dialog
Edit Time Tag Dialog
Communication Center
Communication Center
Using Communication Center
Configuring Communication Center
Refreshing the Content
Receive New Information Notifications
Animation and Time Controls
Animation and Time Controls
Auto Key AnimationMode
Set Key AnimationMode
Default In/Out Tangents For New Keys
Go To Start
Previous Frame/Key
Next Frame/Key
Go To End
Current Frame (Go To Frame)
Time Configuration
Viewport Controls
Viewport Controls
Viewport Right-ClickMenu
Viewport Navigation
Viewport Navigation
Controls Available in All Viewports
Zoom Extents All, Zoom Extents All Selected
Maximize Viewport Toggle
Walkthrough Controls for Perspective and
Camera Viewports
Pan/Truck andWalkthrough Flyout
Walk Through Button
Perspective and Orthographic Viewport
x Contents
Perspective and Orthographic Viewport
Zoom Viewport
Zoom All
Zoom Extents / Zoom Extents Selected
Field of View Flyout
Field-of-View Button
Zoom Region
Pan View
Arc Rotate Flyout
Arc Rotate, Arc Rotate Selected, Arc Rotate
Camera Viewport Controls
Camera Viewport Controls
Dolly Camera, Target, or Both
Roll Camera
Truck Camera
Orbit/Pan Camera
Light Viewport Controls
Light Viewport Controls
Dolly Light, Target, or Both
Light Hotspot
Roll Light
Light Falloff
Truck Light
Orbit/Pan Light
Command Panel
Command Panel
Object Name andWireframe Color
Create Panel
Create Panel
Modify Panel
Modify Panel
Modifier Stack Controls
Modifier Stack Right-ClickMenu
Make Unique
Modifier SetsMenu
ConfigureModifier Sets Dialog
Hierarchy Panel
Motion Panel
Motion Panel
Assign Controller Rollout
Display Panel
Display Panel
Display Floater
Utilities Panel
Utilities Panel
Utilities Dialog
Configure Button Sets Dialog
MAXScript Interface
MAXScript Interface
New Script
Open Script
Run Script
MAXScript Listener
Macro Recorder
Visual MAXScript Utility (See MAXScript
MAXScript Debugger Dialog
Running Scripts from the Command Line
22 Customizing the User Interface
Customizing the User Interface
Useful Customization Techniques
Customize Display Right-ClickMenu
Show UI
Lock UI Layout
Custom UI and Defaults Switcher
Market-Specific Defaults
COM/DCOMServer Control Utility
Customize User Interface Dialog
Customize User Interface Dialog
Keyboard Panel
Toolbars Panel
Quads Panel
Menus Panel
Colors Panel
Advanced QuadMenu Options
Edit Button Appearance Dialog
Saving and Loading Custom User Interfaces
Saving and Loading Custom User Interfaces
Load Custom UI Scheme
Save Custom UI Scheme
Revert to Startup Layout
Configure Paths
Configure Paths
Configure User Paths
Configure System Paths
File I/O Path Configuration
External Path Configuration
XRefs Path Configuration
System Paths
3rd Party Plug-Ins Path Configuration
Network Plug-In Configuration
Contents xi
General Preferences
File Preferences
Viewport Preferences
Gamma and LUT Preferences
Rendering Preferences
Animation Preferences
Inverse Kinematics Preferences
Gizmos Preferences
MAXScript Preferences
Radiosity Preferences
mental ray Preferences
Graphics Driver Setup
Graphics Driver Setup Dialog
Configure Driver
Configure Software Display Driver Dialog
Configure OpenGL Dialog
Direct3D Driver Setup Dialog
Configure Direct3D Dialog
MIDI Time Slider Control Setup
MIDI Time Slider Control Setup Dialog
Units Setup
Units Setup Dialog
System Unit Setup Dialog
File Load: Units Mismatch Dialog
Viewport Configuration
Viewport Configuration
Viewport Layout
Safe Frames
Adaptive Degradation Options
Entering Commands by Using Mouse Strokes
Defining Strokes
Reviewing and Editing Strokes
Stroke Preferences Dialog
Strokes Utility
23 Keyboard Shortcuts
Keyboard Shortcuts
Keyboard Shortcut Override Toggle
A Using the Online Reference
B Troubleshooting 3ds Max

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